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2023.06.04 10:01 Connect_Trouble_164 Airbus wikipedia part one
The Airbus A300 is a wide-body airliner developed and manufactured by Airbus. In September 1967, aircraft manufacturers in the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany signed a memorandum of understanding to develop a large airliner. West Germany and France reached an agreement on 29 May 1969 after the British withdrew from the project on 10 April 1969. European collaborative aerospace manufacturer Airbus Industrie was formally created on 18 December 1970 to develop and produce it. The prototype first flew on 28 October 1972.
The first twin-engine widebody airliner, the A300 typically seats 247 passengers in two classes over a range of 5,375 to 7,500 km (2,900 to 4,050 nmi). Initial variants are powered by General Electric CF6-50 or Pratt & Whitney JT9D turbofans and have a three-crew flight deck. The improved A300-600 has a two-crew cockpit and updated CF6-80C2 or PW4000 engines; it made its first flight on 8 July 1983 and entered service later that year. The A300 is the basis of the smaller A310 (first flown in 1982) and was adapted in a freighter version. Its cross section was retained for the larger four-engined A340 (1991) and the larger twin-engined A330 (1992). It is also the basis for the oversize Beluga transport (1994).
Launch customer Air France introduced the type on 23 May 1974. After limited demand initially, sales took off as the type was proven in early service, beginning three decades of steady orders. It has a similar capacity to the Boeing 767-300, introduced in 1986, but lacked the 767-300ER range. During the 1990s, the A300 became popular with cargo aircraft operators, as both passenger airliner conversions and as original builds. Production ceased in July 2007 after 561 deliveries. As of March 2023, there were 228 A300 family aircraft in commercial service.
During the 1960s, European aircraft manufacturers such as Hawker Siddeley and the British Aircraft Corporation, based in the UK, and Sud Aviation of France, had ambitions to build a new 200-seat airliner for the growing civil aviation market. While studies were performed and considered, such as a stretched twin-engine variant of the Hawker Siddeley Trident and an expanded development of the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) One-Eleven, designated the BAC Two-Eleven, it was recognized that if each of the European manufacturers were to launch similar aircraft into the market at the same time, neither would achieve sales volume needed to make them viable. In 1965, a British government study, known as the Plowden Report, had found British aircraft production costs to be between 10% and 20% higher than American counterparts due to shorter production runs, which was in part due to the fractured European market. To overcome this factor, the report recommended the pursuit of multinational collaborative projects between the region's leading aircraft manufacturers.: 49 : 2–13
European manufacturers were keen to explore prospective programs; the proposed 260-seat wide-body HBN 100 between Hawker Siddeley, Nord Aviation, and Breguet Aviation being one such example.: 37–38 National governments were also keen to support such efforts amid a belief that American manufacturers could dominate the European Economic Community; in particular, Germany had ambitions for a multinational airliner project to invigorate its aircraft industry, which had declined considerably following the Second World War.: 49–50 During the mid-1960s, both Air France and American Airlines had expressed interest in a short-haul twin-engine wide-body aircraft, indicating a market demand for such an aircraft to be produced. In July 1967, during a high-profile meeting between French, German, and British ministers, an agreement was made for greater cooperation between European nations in the field of aviation technology, and "for the joint development and production of an airbus".: 34 The word airbus at this point was a generic aviation term for a larger commercial aircraft, and was considered acceptable in multiple languages, including French.: 34
Shortly after the July 1967 meeting, French engineer Roger Béteille was appointed as the technical director of what would become the A300 program, while Henri Ziegler, chief operating office of Sud Aviation, was appointed as the general manager of the organization and German politician Franz Josef Strauss became the chairman of the supervisory board. Béteille drew up an initial work share plan for the project, under which French firms would produce the aircraft's cockpit, the control systems, and lower-center portion of the fuselage, Hawker Siddeley would manufacture the wings, while German companies would produce the forward, rear and upper part of the center fuselage sections. Addition work included moving elements of the wings being produced in the Netherlands, and Spain producing the horizontal tail plane.: 38
An early design goal for the A300 that Béteille had stressed the importance of was the incorporation of a high level of technology, which would serve as a decisive advantage over prospective competitors. As such, the A300 would feature the first use of composite materials of any passenger aircraft, the leading and trailing edges of the tail fin being composed of glass fibre reinforced plastic.: 2–16  Béteille opted for English as the working language for the developing aircraft, as well against using Metric instrumentation and measurements, as most airlines already had US-built aircraft. These decisions were partially influenced by feedback from various airlines, such as Air France and Lufthansa, as an emphasis had been placed on determining the specifics of what kind of aircraft that potential operators were seeking. According to Airbus, this cultural approach to market research had been crucial to the company's long-term success.
Workshare and redefinition:
On 26 September 1967, the British, French, and West German governments signed a Memorandum of Understanding to start development of the 300-seat Airbus A300.: 38 : 43 : 57 At this point, the A300 was only the second major joint aircraft programme in Europe, the first being the Anglo-French Concorde. Under the terms of the memorandum, Britain and France were each to receive a 37.5 per cent work share on the project, while Germany received a 25 per cent share. Sud Aviation was recognized as the lead company for A300, with Hawker Siddeley being selected as the British partner company. At the time, the news of the announcement had been clouded by the British Government's support for the Airbus, which coincided with its refusal to back BAC's proposed competitor, the BAC 2–11, despite a preference for the latter expressed by British European Airways (BEA).: 34 Another parameter was the requirement for a new engine to be developed by Rolls-Royce to power the proposed airliner; a derivative of the in-development Rolls-Royce RB211, the triple-spool RB207, capable of producing of 47,500 lbf (211 kN). The program cost was US$4.6 billion (in 1993 Dollars).
In December 1968, the French and British partner companies (Sud Aviation and Hawker Siddeley) proposed a revised configuration, the 250-seat Airbus A250. It had been feared that the original 300-seat proposal was too large for the market, thus it had been scaled down to produce the A250.: 2–14  The dimensional changes involved in the shrink reduced the length of the fuselage by 5.62 metres (18.4 ft) and the diameter by 0.8 metres (31 in), reducing the overall weight by 25 tonnes (55,000 lb).: 16 For increased flexibility, the cabin floor was raised so that standard LD3 freight containers could be accommodated side-by-side, allowing more cargo to be carried. Refinements made by Hawker Siddeley to the wing's design provided for greater lift and overall performance; this gave the aircraft the ability to climb faster and attain a level cruising altitude sooner than any other passenger aircraft. It was later renamed the A300B.: 34 
Perhaps the most significant change of the A300B was that it would not require new engines to be developed, being of a suitable size to be powered by Rolls-Royce's RB211, or alternatively the American Pratt & Whitney JT9D and General Electric CF6 powerplants; this switch was recognized as considerably reducing the project's development costs.: 45 : 16–17 To attract potential customers in the US market, it was decided that General Electric CF6-50 engines would power the A300 in place of the British RB207; these engines would be produced in co-operation with French firm Snecma. By this time, Rolls-Royce had been concentrating their efforts upon developing their RB211 turbofan engine instead and progress on the RB207's development had been slow for some time, the firm having suffered due to funding limitations, both of which had been factors in the engine switch decision.: 2–13 : 17–18
On 10 April 1969, a few months after the decision to drop the RB207 had been announced, the British government announced that they would withdraw from the Airbus venture.: 38–39  In response, West Germany proposed to France that they would be willing to contribute up to 50% of the project's costs if France was prepared to do the same. Additionally, the managing director of Hawker Siddeley, Sir Arnold Alexander Hall, decided that his company would remain in the project as a favoured sub-contractor, developing and manufacturing the wings for the A300, which would later become pivotal in later versions' impressive performance from short domestic to long intercontinental flights.: 2–13 : 34 : 18 Hawker Siddeley spent £35 million of its own funds, along with a further £35 million loan from the West German government, on the machine tooling to design and produce the wings.: 39 
On 29 May 1969, during the Paris Air Show, French transport minister Jean Chamant and German economics minister Karl Schiller signed an agreement officially launching the Airbus A300, the world's first twin-engine widebody airliner. The intention of the project was to produce an aircraft that was smaller, lighter, and more economical than its three-engine American rivals, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar. In order to meet Air France's demands for an aircraft larger than 250-seat A300B, it was decided to stretch the fuselage to create a new variant, designated as the A300B2, which would be offered alongside the original 250-seat A300B, henceforth referred to as the A300B1. On 3 September 1970, Air France signed a letter of intent for six A300s, marking the first order to be won for the new airliner.: 39 : 21
In the aftermath of the Paris Air Show agreement, it was decided that, in order to provide effective management of responsibilities, a Groupement d'intérêt économique would be established, allowing the various partners to work together on the project while remaining separate business entities. On 18 December 1970, Airbus Industrie was formally established following an agreement between Aérospatiale (the newly merged Sud Aviation and Nord Aviation) of France and the antecedents to Deutsche Aerospace of Germany, each receiving a 50 per cent stake in the newly formed company.: 50 : 39  In 1971, the consortium was joined by a third full partner, the Spanish firm CASA, who received a 4.2 per cent stake, the other two members reducing their stakes to 47.9 per cent each.: 20 In 1979, Britain joined the Airbus consortium via British Aerospace, which Hawker Siddeley had merged into, which acquired a 20 per cent stake in Airbus Industrie with France and Germany each reducing their stakes to 37.9 per cent.: 53 : 2–14 : 39
Prototype and flight testing:
Airbus Industrie was initially headquartered in Paris, which is where design, development, flight testing, sales, marketing, and customer support activities were centered; the headquarters was relocated to Toulouse in January 1974. The final assembly line for the A300 was located adjacent to Toulouse Blagnac International Airport. The manufacturing process necessitated transporting each aircraft section being produced by the partner companies scattered across Europe to this one location. The combined use of ferries and roads were used for the assembly of the first A300, however this was time-consuming and not viewed as ideal by Felix Kracht, Airbus Industrie's production director. Kracht's solution was to have the various A300 sections brought to Toulouse by a fleet of Boeing 377-derived Aero Spacelines Super Guppy aircraft, by which means none of the manufacturing sites were more than two hours away. Having the sections airlifted in this manner made the A300 the first airliner to use just-in-time manufacturing techniques, and allowed each company to manufacture its sections as fully equipped, ready-to-fly assemblies.: 53 
In September 1969, construction of the first prototype A300 began.: 20 On 28 September 1972, this first prototype was unveiled to the public, it conducted its maiden flight from Toulouse–Blagnac International Airport on 28 October that year.: 39 : 34 : 51–52 This maiden flight, which was performed a month ahead of schedule, lasted for one hour and 25 minutes; the captain was Max Fischl and the first officer was Bernard Ziegler, son of Henri Ziegler. In 1972, unit cost was US$17.5M. On 5 February 1973, the second prototype performed its maiden flight.: 39 The flight test program, which involved a total of four aircraft, was relatively problem-free, accumulating 1,580 flight hours throughout.: 22 In September 1973, as part of promotional efforts for the A300, the new aircraft was taken on a six-week tour around North America and South America, to demonstrate it to airline executives, pilots, and would-be customers. Amongst the consequences of this expedition, it had allegedly brought the A300 to the attention of Frank Borman of Eastern Airlines, one of the "big four" U.S. airlines.
Entry into service:
On 15 March 1974, type certificates were granted for the A300 from both German and French authorities, clearing the way for its entry into revenue service. On 23 May 1974, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification was received.: 22 The first production model, the A300B2, entered service in 1974, followed by the A300B4 one year later. Initially, the success of the consortium was poor, in part due to the economic consequences of the 1973 oil crisis,: 40 : 34 but by 1979 there were 81 A300 passenger liners in service with 14 airlines, alongside 133 firm orders and 88 options. Ten years after the official launch of the A300, the company had achieved a 26 per cent market share in terms of dollar value, enabling Airbus Industries to proceed with the development of its second aircraft, the Airbus A310.
The Airbus A300 is a wide-body medium-to-long range airliner; it has the distinction of being the first twin-engine wide-body aircraft in the world.: 34 : 57, 60  In 1977, the A300 became the first Extended Range Twin Operations (ETOPS)-compliant aircraft, due to its high performance and safety standards.: 40 Another world-first of the A300 is the use of composite materials on a commercial aircraft, which were used on both secondary and later primary airframe structures, decreasing overall weight and improving cost-effectiveness. Other firsts included the pioneering use of center-of-gravity control, achieved by transferring fuel between various locations across the aircraft, and electrically signaled secondary flight controls.
The A300 is powered by a pair of underwing turbofan engines, either General Electric CF6 or Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines; the sole use of underwing engine pods allowed for any suitable turbofan engine to be more readily used.: 57 The lack of a third tail-mounted engine, as per the trijet configuration used by some competing airliners, allowed for the wings to be located further forwards and to reduce the size of the vertical stabilizer and elevator, which had the effect of increasing the aircraft's flight performance and fuel efficiency.: 50 : 21
Airbus partners had employed the latest technology, some of which having been derived from Concorde, on the A300. According to Airbus, new technologies adopted for the airliner were selected principally for increased safety, operational capability, and profitability. Upon entry into service in 1974, the A300 was a very advanced plane, which went on to influence later airliner designs. The technological highlights include advanced wings by de Havilland (later BAE Systems) with supercritical airfoil sections for economical performance and advanced aerodynamically efficient flight control surfaces. The 5.64 m (222 in) diameter circular fuselage section allows an eight-abreast passenger seating and is wide enough for 2 LD3 cargo containers side by side. Structures are made from metal billets, reducing weight. It is the first airliner to be fitted with wind shear protection. Its advanced autopilots are capable of flying the aircraft from climb-out to landing, and it has an electrically controlled braking system.
Later A300s incorporated other advanced features such as the Forward-Facing Crew Cockpit (FFCC), which enabled a two-pilot flight crew to fly the aircraft alone without the need for a flight engineer, the functions of which were automated; this two-man cockpit concept was a world-first for a wide-body aircraft.: 23–24  Glass cockpit flight instrumentation, which used cathode ray tube (CRT) monitors to display flight, navigation, and warning information, along with fully digital dual autopilots and digital flight control computers for controlling the spoilers, flaps, and leading-edge slats, were also adopted upon later-built models. Additional composites were also made use of, such as carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), as well as their presence in an increasing proportion of the aircraft's components, including the spoilers, rudder, air brakes, and landing gear doors. Another feature of later aircraft was the addition of wingtip fences, which improved aerodynamic performance and thus reduced cruise fuel consumption by about 1.5% for the A300-600.
In addition to passenger duties, the A300 became widely used by air freight operators; according to Airbus, it is the best selling freight aircraft of all time. Various variants of the A300 were built to meet customer demands, often for diverse roles such as aerial refueling tankers, freighter models (new-build and conversions), combi aircraft, military airlifter, and VIP transport. Perhaps the most visually unique of the variants is the A300-600ST Beluga, an oversize cargo-carrying model operated by Airbus to carry aircraft sections between their manufacturing facilities. The A300 was the basis for, and retained a high level of commonality with, the second airliner produced by Airbus, the smaller Airbus A310.
On 23 May 1974, the first A300 to enter service performed the first commercial flight of the type, flying from Paris to London, for Air France.: 39 
Immediately after the launch, sales of the A300 were weak for some years, with most orders going to airlines that had an obligation to favor the domestically made product – notably Air France and Lufthansa, the first two airlines to place orders for the type.: 50–52  Following the appointment of Bernard Lathière as Henri Ziegler's replacement, an aggressive sales approach was adopted. Indian Airlines was the world's first domestic airline to purchase the A300, ordering three aircraft with three options. However, between December 1975 and May 1977, there were no sales for the type. During this period a number of "whitetail" A300s – completed but unsold aircraft – were completed and stored at Toulouse, and production fell to half an aircraft per month amid calls to pause production completely.
During the flight testing of the A300B2, Airbus held a series of talks with Korean Air on the topic of developing a longer-range version of the A300, which would become the A300B4. In September 1974, Korean Air placed an order for four A300B4s with options for two further aircraft; this sale was viewed as significant as it was the first non-European international airline to order Airbus aircraft. Airbus had viewed South-East Asia as a vital market that was ready to be opened up and believed Korean Air to be the 'key'.: 23 
Airlines operating the A300 on short haul routes were forced to reduce frequencies to try and fill the aircraft. As a result, they lost passengers to airlines operating more frequent narrow body flights. Eventually, Airbus had to build its own narrowbody aircraft (the A320) to compete with the Boeing 737 and McDonnell Douglas DC-9/MD-80. The savior of the A300 was the advent of ETOPS, a revised FAA rule which allows twin-engine jets to fly long-distance routes that were previously off-limits to them. This enabled Airbus to develop the aircraft as a medium/long range airliner.
In 1977, US carrier Eastern Air Lines leased four A300s as an in-service trial. CEO Frank Borman was impressed that the A300 consumed 30% less fuel, even less than expected, than his fleet of L-1011s. Borman proceeded to order 23 A300s, becoming the first U.S. customer for the type. This order is often cited as the point at which Airbus came to be seen as a serious competitor to the large American aircraft-manufacturers Boeing and McDonnell Douglas.: 40  Aviation author John Bowen alleged that various concessions, such as loan guarantees from European governments and compensation payments, were a factor in the decision as well.: 52 The Eastern Air Lines breakthrough was shortly followed by an order from Pan Am. From then on, the A300 family sold well, eventually reaching a total of 561 delivered aircraft.
In December 1977, Aerocondor Colombia became the first Airbus operator in Latin America, leasing one Airbus A300B4-2C, named Ciudad de Barranquilla.
During the late 1970s, Airbus adopted a so-called 'Silk Road' strategy, targeting airlines in the Far East.: 52  As a result, The aircraft found particular favor with Asian airlines, being bought by Japan Air System, Korean Air, China Eastern Airlines, Thai Airways International, Singapore Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Philippine Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, China Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines, Indian Airlines, Trans Australia Airlines and many others. As Asia did not have restrictions similar to the FAA 60-minutes rule for twin-engine airliners which existed at the time, Asian airlines used A300s for routes across the Bay of Bengal and South China Sea.
In 1977, the A300B4 became the first ETOPS compliant aircraft, qualifying for Extended Twin Engine Operations over water, providing operators with more versatility in routing. In 1982 Garuda Indonesia became the first airline to fly the A300B4-200FFCC. By 1981, Airbus was growing rapidly, with over 400 aircraft sold to over forty airlines.
In 1989, Chinese operator China Eastern Airlines received its first A300; by 2006, the airline operated around 18 A300s, making it the largest operator of both the A300 and the A310 at that time. On 31 May 2014, China Eastern officially retired the last A300-600 in its fleet, having begun drawing down the type in 2010.
From 1997 to 2014, a single A300, designated A300 Zero-G, was operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) as a reduced-gravity aircraft for conducting research into microgravity; the A300 is the largest aircraft to ever have been used in this capacity. A typical flight would last for two and a half hours, enabling up to 30 parabolas to be performed per flight.
By the 1990s, the A300 was being heavily promoted as a cargo freighter.: 24 The largest freight operator of the A300 is FedEx Express, which has 65 A300 aircraft in service as of May 2022. UPS Airlines also operates 52 freighter versions of the A300.
The final version was the A300-600R and is rated for 180-minute ETOPS. The A300 has enjoyed renewed interest in the secondhand market for conversion to freighters; large numbers were being converted during the late 1990s.: 24–25 The freighter versions – either new-build A300-600s or converted ex-passenger A300-600s, A300B2s and B4s – account for most of the world's freighter fleet after the Boeing 747 freighter.
The A300 provided Airbus the experience of manufacturing and selling airliners competitively. The basic fuselage of the A300 was later stretched (A330 and A340), shortened (A310), or modified into derivatives (A300-600ST Beluga Super Transporter). In 2006, unit cost of an −600F was $105 million. In March 2006, Airbus announced the impending closure of the A300/A310 final assembly line, making them the first Airbus aircraft to be discontinued. The final production A300, an A300F freighter, performed its initial flight on 18 April 2007, and was delivered to FedEx Express on 12 July 2007. Airbus has announced a support package to keep A300s flying commercially. Airbus offers the A330-200F freighter as a replacement for the A300 cargo variants.
The life of UPS's fleet of 52 A300s, delivered from 2000 to 2006, will be extended to 2035 by a flight deck upgrade based around Honeywell Primus Epic avionics; new displays and flight management system (FMS), improved weather radar, a central maintenance system, and a new version of the current enhanced ground proximity warning system. With a light usage of only two to three cycles per day, it will not reach the maximum number of cycles by then. The first modification will be made at Airbus Toulouse in 2019 and certified in 2020. As of July 2017, there are 211 A300s in service with 22 operators, with the largest operator being FedEx Express with 68 A300-600F aircraft.
A300B1 - The A300B1 was the first variant to take flight. It had a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 132 t (291,000 lb), was 51 m (167 ft) long and was powered by two General Electric CF6-50A engines.: 21 : 41 Only two prototypes of the variant were built before it was adapted into the A300B2, the first production variant of the airliner.: 39 The second prototype was leased to Trans European Airways in 1974.: 54
Responding to a need for more seats from Air France, Airbus decided that the first production variant should be larger than the original prototype A300B1. The CF6-50A powered A300B2-100 was 2.6 m (8.5 ft) longer than the A300B1 and had an increased MTOW of 137 t (302,000 lb), allowing for 30 additional seats and bringing the typical passenger count up to 281, with capacity for 20 LD3 containers.: 10 : 17 Two prototypes were built and the variant made its maiden flight on 28 June 1973, became certified on 15 March 1974 and entered service with Air France on 23 May 1974.: 27, 53 : 10
For the A300B2-200, originally designated as the A300B2K, Krueger flaps were introduced at the leading-edge root, the slat angles were reduced from 20 degrees to 16 degrees, and other lift related changes were made in order to introduce a high-lift system. This was done to improve performance when operating at high-altitude airports, where the air is less dense and lift generation is reduced.: 52, 53  The variant had an increased MTOW of 142 t (313,000 lb) and was powered by CF6-50C engines, was certified on 23 June 1976, and entered service with South African Airways in November 1976.: 40 : 12 CF6-50C1 and CF6-50C2 models were also later fitted depending on customer requirements, these became certified on 22 February 1978 and 21 February 1980 respectively.: 41 : 12
The A300B2-320 introduced the Pratt & Whitney JT9D powerplant and was powered by JT9D-59A engines. It retained the 142 t (313,000 lb) MTOW of the B2-200, was certified on 4 January 1980, and entered service with Scandinavian Airlines on 18 February 1980, with only four being produced.: 99, 112 : 14
The initial A300B4 variant, later named the A300B4-100, included a centre fuel tank for an increased fuel capacity of 47.5 tonnes (105,000 lb), and had an increased MTOW of 157.5 tonnes (347,000 lb).: 38 It also featured Krueger flaps and had a similar high-lift system to what was later fitted to the A300B2-200.: 74 The variant made its maiden flight on 26 December 1974, was certified on 26 March 1975, and entered service with Germanair in May 1975.: 32, 54 : 16
The A300B4-200 had an increased MTOW of 165 tonnes (364,000 lb) and featured an additional optional fuel tank in the rear cargo hold, which would reduce the cargo capacity by two LD3 containers.: 19 : 69 The variant was certified on 26 April 1979.: 19
A300-600 - The A300-600, officially designated as the A300B4-600, was slightly longer than the A300B2 and A300B4 variants and had an increased interior space from using a similar rear fuselage to the Airbus A310, this allowed it to have two additional rows of seats.: 79 It was initially powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D-7R4H1 engines, but was later fitted with General Electric CF6-80C2 engines, with Pratt & Whitney PW4156 or PW4158 engines being introduced in 1986.: 82 Other changes include an improved wing featuring a recambered trailing edge, the incorporation of simpler single-slotted Fowler flaps, the deletion of slat fences, and the removal of the outboard ailerons after they were deemed unnecessary on the A310. The variant made its first flight on 8 July 1983, was certified on 9 March 1984, and entered service in June 1984 with Saudi Arabian Airlines.: 42 : 58 A total of 313 A300-600s (all versions) have been sold. The A300-600 uses the A310 cockpits, featuring digital technology and electronic displays, eliminating the need for a flight engineer. The FAA issues a single type rating which allows operation of both the A310 and A300-600. A300-600: (Official designation: A300B4-600) The baseline model of the −600 series. A300-620C: (Official designation: A300C4-620) A convertible-freighter version. Four delivered between 1984 and 1985. A300-600F: (Official designation: A300F4-600) The freighter version of the baseline −600. A300-600R: (Official designation: A300B4-600R) The increased-range −600, achieved by an additional trim fuel tank in the tail. First delivery in 1988 to American Airlines; all A300s built since 1989 (freighters included) are −600Rs. Japan Air System (later merged into Japan Airlines) took delivery of the last new-built passenger A300, an A300-622R, in November 2002. A300-600RC: (Official designation: A300C4-600R) The convertible-freighter version of the −600R. Two were delivered in 1999. A300-600RF: (Official designation: A300F4-600R) The freighter version of the −600R. All A300s delivered between November 2002 and 12 July 2007 (last ever A300 delivery) were A300-600RFs.
Airbus had demand for an aircraft smaller than the A300. On 7 July 1978, the A310 (initially the A300B10) was launched with orders from Swissair and Lufthansa. On 3 April 1982, the first prototype conducted its maiden flight and it received its type certification on 11 March 1983.
Keeping the same eight-abreast cross-section, the A310 is 6.95 m (22.8 ft) shorter than the initial A300 variants, and has a smaller 219 m2 (2,360 sq ft) wing, down from 260 m2 (2,800 sq ft). The A310 introduced a two-crew glass cockpit, later adopted for the A300-600 with a common type rating. It was powered by the same GE CF6-80 or Pratt & Whitney JT9D then PW4000 turbofans. It can seat 220 passengers in two classes, or 240 in all-economy, and can fly up to 5,150 nmi (9,540 km). It has overwing exits between the two main front and rear door pairs.
In April 1983, the aircraft entered revenue service with Swissair and competed with the Boeing 767–200, introduced six months before. Its longer range and ETOPS regulations allowed it to be operated on transatlantic flights. Until the last delivery in June 1998, 255 aircraft were produced, as it was succeeded by the larger Airbus A330-200. It has cargo aircraft versions, and was derived into the Airbus A310 MRTT military tanketransport.
Airbus A300-ST (Beluga)
Commonly referred to as the Airbus Beluga or "Airbus Super Transporter," these five airframes are used by Airbus to ferry parts between the company's disparate manufacturing facilities, thus enabling workshare distribution. They replaced the four Aero Spacelines Super Guppys previously used by Airbus.
ICAO code: A3ST
As of March 2023, there were 228 A300 family aircraft in commercial service. The five largest operators were FedEx Express (70), UPS Airlines (52), European Air Transport Leipzig (23), Iran Air (11), and Mahan Air (11).
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2023.06.04 10:00 LIS1050010 Guide: Hiking vs. Trekking - 10 Essentials
Even the best weather can change rapidly, and even the widest trail can be lost. It pays to take a little extra with you, just in case.
This list is NOT exhaustive – it is just a start – add to this list according to the season and your route. Notice
: Always tell a reliable person where you are going and when to expect you back, leave a detailed trip itinerary, and make sure you know your route and plan accordingly.
The below list assumes you are already wearing appropriate footwear – hiking boots NOT runners. Runners are a terrible choice for hiking. You will slip and or sprain your ankle. Appropriate hiking clothing that is NON-COTTON, such as hiking pants, poly-pro shirt, poly-pro underwear, toque, and backpack. Just remember, these are not get out of jail free cards,
electronics can fail, run out of batteries, or lose their signal. Telling someone where you are going, leaving a trip itinerary and bringing the other 9 essentials is critical to a safe outdoor excursion.
Flashlight or a headlamp with extra batteries (and light bulb if not LED). Green cyalume stick or small turtle lights as emergency backup.
2. Signalling Device
Whistle (we recommend the Fox 40 whistle with a lanyard), Bear Bangers, Pencil Flare
3. Fire Starter
Matches (water proof or in plastic bag) or lighter. We also recommend a commercial firestarter and/or a candle. Commercial firestarters can be purchased at outdoor stores like Mountain Equipment Coop.
4. Warm clothes
Hat or toque, gloves or mittens, puffy jacket, gortex jacket, polypro underwear, good quality hiking socks and gortex over pants.
Although a multi tool is preferred, a good pocket knife with a quality blade will suffice. It may also be worth carrying a small pruning saw for cutting branches when building a shelter or fire.
Large orange plastic bag and thermal tarp.
7. Water and food
Gatorade crystals recommended and high energy food bars
8. First-aid kit
Should include pocket mask; Sam Splint, bulk dressings, protective gloves, bandage, scissors and blister dressings
Good quality compass with built in declination adjustment and both topographical and interpretive maps. we also recommend a GPS unit but only as an adjunct to compass and map. Most team members carry a Garmin 60 series GPS unit that has terrific reception in the trees.
10. Communications – Cell phone
We recommend you bring a cell phone with a fully charged battery. It is advisable to keep the phone turned off, and stored in a ziplock bag. This way, if you get into trouble your phone will be dry and have a full charge. Many people manage to call 911 initially but their phone dies before their location can be relayed, not a desirable situation. If you have a smartphone, you should also know how to get GPS coordinates off of it to give to search and rescue if you become lost or injured (eg. MotionX or iphone compass app) . Depending on the terrain and difficulty of your excursion, it may also be worth considering satellite based communications devices like the Spot, Delorme InReach or a Personal Locator Beacon.
Important Tips regarding the 10 essentials:
The lack of light is the single most cause of overdure hiker calls for NSR. It is so easy to under estimate the amount of daylight left especially if you are deep in the forest. That is why carrying a good quality flashlight or headlamp with extra bulb and batteries per person, is number 1 on our list of the ten essential items. It is also prudent to carry green cyalume light sticks as an emergency backup ONLY. These lightweight items will illuminate the trail around and in front of you sufficiently for you to travel slowly in darkness fro several hours.
Note that training is required to develop efficient skills for use of a map, compass, and first aid kit, as well as to efficiently light fires. However having these items with you can make all the difference in a survival situation.
Why a large orange plastic bag? It’s actually one of the most valuable items on the list. Crawling into the bag helps keep you warm and dry. The orange colour is also highly visible and helps attract attention, particularly from the air.
Why a whistle? It is ideal for siganlling for help as your voice will become very hoarse in a short period of time especially if you are dehydrated. We reccommend the Fox 40 whistle because it works very well in wet conditions and has good range. When sending out a distress whistle blast do three short blasts in timed intervals of 1 to 5 minutes and in different directions from where you are standing as rescuers may be above below or to the sides of you, especially if you are lost in a canyon.If you here whistle blasts from rescuers it doesn’t mean that they can here you. Continue whistle blasts at even shorter intervals 1 minutes or less until they can make voice contact with you and the follow their instructions etc..
We also recommend you carry a heavy duty thermal blanket as this provides excellent shelter and reflects body heat.
Water especially, is an important essential item to take before and during your hike. We recommend you drink between 1-2 litres of water before and carry 1-2 litres. Hydration is directly proportional to your performance but also in maintaining essential fluid balance in your body. This is only a general guideline and is to be adjusted for extreme heat, cold, altitude, terrain etc. We also recommend you carry electrolyte, such as Gatorade in order to replenished salt and potassium that are depleted during excessive exercise. We recommend that you be always fully aware to take short rest and water breaks and hydrate yourself during your hike so as to avoid fluid depletion that leads to heat exhaustion and/or hypothermia.
We combined navigation and communications into number 9 and 10 essential items rather than creating the 11 essential items as they go hand in hand with each other. Knowing where you are and communicating your location in an emergency is a god send, both to yourself and the search and rescue team. As stated above you need proper training to orienteer with compass and map and a GPS should be seen as an adjunct to this. The GPS in itself is a valuable tool and depending on the type and price you want to pay you can get topographical maps downloaded onto the GPS. However, the GPS requires practice and it is not a substitute for orienteering skills especially if you are in terrain with natural obstacles such as canyons, cliff bands etc
The whole strategy to clothing is layering and breathability. This prevents overheating and sweating which can cause dehydration and begin the cycle of hypothermia in cold weather and heat exhaustion in relatively warmer weather. There are many clothing types on the market but you will want to wear underclothing next to the skin that wicks sweat away. It is also important to purchase fleece and gortex clothing that has venting zippers in the armpits and leg areas as this allows excess body heat to vent during times of heavy exercise in inclement weather. A fleece or woolen toque or hat is also a must as a great deal of body heat is lost through the head especially in children. Remember the saying ” if your feet get cold put your toque on”. Good quality woolen or gortex gloves or mittens are a must, especially in winter and inclement weather so as to prevent frostbite or cold injury. This will also allow you to perform tasks such as holding onto rocks or tree branches when traveling in terrain, wood gathering , lighting a fire etc. One additional little tip is to carry two good quality plastic shopping bags in case your boots get wet. You can put on your dry socks and wrap them in the bags then put your wet boots back on. This is great if you are stranded overnight and want yo keep you feet warm and be somewhat comfortbale.It can also prevent frostbite in cold weather in this type of situation.
We did not include footwear as an essential item to carry as it something that goes on at the start of your hike and stays on. Footwear selection from trail runners to approach shoes to light hikers to full mountaineering leather or plastic boots needs to be based on the type of activity you plan to carry out and the type of terrain you will travel in. Remember, if you buy new boots break them in long before your hike and have plenty of moleskin on hand to cover the potential hot spots that always seem to go with new boots. Also, good quality hiking socks are a must as these types of socks will wick sweat away from the feet thus reducing the risk of blisters or skin problems.
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2023.06.04 10:00 AutoModerator Boston Daily Discussion Thread, Sunday June 04
This thread is for chatting about what is going on in Boston today. This includes the news about today's commute, what is going on around Boston, commonly asked questions, as well as a general free chat throughout the day.
Example topics include:
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2023.06.04 09:57 icespicycoochie rate my linkedin about me section. I wrote it myself but I want to make it seem like I have an assistant writing it for me.
Saeed is a 24 year old rising 3L at Harvard Law School and is a member of the Class of 2024. He will be joining the Sidley Austin NYC Office as a 2023 M&A/Private Equity Summer Associate. His involvements on campus include the Harvard Association for Law and Business (HALB), HLS student government, South Asian Law Students Association (SALSA), and the Muslim Law Students Association (MLSA). He has also served as an editor on the Harvard Business Law Review.
He formerly worked as a Client Advisor at the West Coast Flagship Store of Louis Vuitton. Advisors in the country for the first two quarters of 2021. Saeed strives to cultivate genuine relationships with others and networking is his second nature. Ultimately, he would like to become a leader who leverages the ideals of capitalism to promote equity and social justice. As a Pakistani-American, he's excited to unlock the full potential of the American Dream and be a proponent of diversity and inclusion.
During his undergrad years, he was one of 20 students selected to the prestigious TRIALS program in 2019, the Sidley Scholars program in 2020, is a Forbes The Culture member, and led Pre-Law Transfer Society (as President) to be the first transfer student org to secure a Forbes partnership in UCLA history. In a span of one year, he led Pre-Law Transfer Society to become the top pre-law organization on the UCLA campus and brought in guests such as Nick ¨Swaggy P¨, Metta World Peace, Superagent Audie Attar, Seth Krauss (Chief Legal Officer of Endeavor), and many others. In addition, Saeed designed and partnered up with LA fashion company TEKTON LA to design custom sweaters that showcased the executive boards immense diversity. By the end of the 2020 academic school year, Pre-Law Transfer Society at UCLA not only became the #1 pre-law org on the UCLA campus... it also became the most stylish!
He was also involved in various other student orgs on the UCLA campus either through direct involvement or organization collaborations. This involvement/collaboration included the Middle Eastern Student Association , Muslim Student Association, & Pakistani Student Association. Saeed Ahmad has also served as a campus brand ambassador for brands such as Tommy Hilfiger and Peet's Coffee. His roles included social media marketing and promotion.
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2023.06.04 09:52 Hopeful-South-2606 Planning an upgrade. Is Fujifilm brand and X-S10 a good choice for SOOC JPEGs and colors?
Hello, I'm planning to upgrade my camera, including the possibility of switching to a different system.
The primary criteria for picking a camera (brand) are:
- out of camera colors produce well usable SOOC JPEGs and video, because:
- I sit 8 hours a day behind the computer at my job, and hate sitting behind the computer more to develop RAWs into usable JPEGs, and also because of other pragmatic reasons,...
- PDAF for better focus reliability,
- IBIS for handheld use without gimbal or tripod,
- budget-friendly as it's hobby and not professional use.
- auto-focus reliability as best as possible once primary criteria are fulfilled.
Currently, I own Panasonic Lumix GX85 with a 12-32mm lens. I've also got 42.25mm F/1.7 with super shallow DoF and great image quality, but I use this lens less than I wanted, because I'm not a lens swapper.
Current camera issues:
- autofocus is bad in video, lots of focus hunting when filming moving kids or dogs, or jumping between both,
- low photography quality in low light in-doors, evenings, or sometimes even dim light,
- out of camera colors and not so good.
Main planned use, and other features I'm focused on:
- amateur to hobby-pro landscape and travel photography,
- home and family non-professional videos,
- all-around lens for majority of shoots,
- shallow DoF object photography,
- aspect ratio 3:2 for 99% of photos,
- good 1080p 60fps video quality,
- good auto-focus with tracking of moving objects,
- wide end to be of 12mm or wider (24mm full-frame),
- lightweight for travel,
- non-premium pricing of lenses.
Extra wishes for upgrade:
- higher MP to cover modern 6k displays, which would eventually become mainstream in 10+ years, to future-proof photos in terms of resolution as one can't re-shoot it again in the past,
- weathewater resistant to shoot beautiful non-sunny landscapes without complicated care for camera,
- future-proof lens mount (non-discontinued) in case of upgrading to better all-around lens in future,
- good tele zoom lens available for a good price.
So far, from all the research I've done, I found Fujifilm to be the most focused on "color science" and great SOOC photos. And, often mentioned, that if one wants just JPEGs, then Fujifilm is the only reasonable choice. Is it true?
Fujifilm glass is quite expensive, but it seems to be more because Fujifilm doesn't make low-end/poocheap tier of lenses. As I'm not a lens swapper, I would be mostly using only one for a long time. So, it better be good.
Would the Fujifilm X-S10 + Fujinon XF 16-80mm f/4 R OIS WR be a good choice for me? It's basically the cheapest Fujifilm camera with IBIS and has got PDAF for better auto-focus. However, it's already more expensive than budget I imagined for my upgrade, as Canon, Nikon and Sony have more affordable cameras.
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2023.06.04 09:48 Fort362 My issue with the show
Tl;dr: the ending where Ted goes back home for his son just hurts so much for to me watch because my job won’t let me do that and I fear my child wouldn’t want me to do that for them even if I could.
I love this show and gives me the feels in all the right places at all the right times. But recently this show hits different. For background my ex wife and I split back in 2013 and she moved back to Texas while I stayed in SC and eventually moved to CT for the military. I would see my daughter about every few months but she was little and it didn’t really bother me that we didn’t talk all that much.
In 2017 I got stationed back and TX and my ex and I agreed to let me have full custody of her while I was on shore duty and it was a great time.
In 2019 I moved back to CT and then in 2020 I moved to GA where I was for three years. I saw my daughter maybe five times in the last few years because of COVID and my job taking me underway for long periods. Combined with that my ex wife keeps asking for more money and the times I talk to my daughter go longer and longer. I saw this show when I was on a quarantine period and was instantly hooked. When I went underway in 2022 I got all my friends hooked on this show and doing a full rewatch I found myself being unable to watch certain scenes and episodes because of the intense emotions and feelings it evokes. Fast forward to this ending, I’m now living in London for my next shore duty job and it is great and I love it but the damn feels that I can’t have the freedom to move back to have a relationship with my child just tears me up.
Anyway this is just what I’m dealing with and I wanted to get it off my chest to a group of people that understand why I’m detailing all of this to total strangers.
I hope everyone has a great day as I celebrate 5 years of sobriety as well enjoy the day and get outside!
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2023.06.04 09:47 beampjotr HÖR Berlin Techno DJ Mix ID Playlists (Spotify Soundcloud Youtube)
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2023.06.04 09:45 beampjotr HÖR Berlin Techno DJ Mix ID Playlists (Spotify Soundcloud Youtube)
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2023.06.04 09:43 beampjotr HÖR Berlin Techno Mix ID Playlists (Spotify Soundcloud Youtube)
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2023.06.04 09:35 69breedandseed 50 [M4F] #San Antonio, TX Looking for long term Breeding Partner
I am 50 with a successful career from Northern California. I live in the San Antonio area, I live in Texas but work in California on occasion. Here's a little about me. I am married, and I have bred my wife for many years successfully. She is done with having kids. So, I am looking for someone one who doesn't mind me being married that I can breed continuously. I am an open book and very open to any situation. Most people are flakes on here and I understand. This is a big decision. Let's chat and see if this is something you are into. Please be discreet and serious. Pic upon request. Thanks for reading my post.
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2023.06.04 09:35 ThinkHog Im in a conundrum when it comes to traveling and taking photos. Can you help me?
Im a videographer with extensive sony ff equipment as well as an old a6000 and many lenses. I used to travel for vacation and carry the a6000 plus some good glass with me to snap some shots. But found myself in my couple of last trips not using them at all and reaching for my poco f2 pro, a gopro or insta360 and a drone. I think its the convenience of being in the moment plus i get good enough results for social media that i am happy. Also no weights.
Now i have a couple of vacations that will be in locations with great scenery but unpredictable weather. I was thinking getting my a6000 plus maybe a tamron 18-300 (with all its shortcomings) and call it a day. But the weater is so unpredictable that it might start showers any time and then stop and so forth. My a6000 isnt water resistant like other cameras and it also doubles as my streaming or street photography camera when back home.
My choice is either go with a new apsc body (a6400/a6600/z50 maybe) or get the s23u and call it a day.
Please give me your opinions and recommendations.
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to Cameras [link] [comments]
2023.06.04 09:30 EchoJobs Zynga is hiring Senior Software Engineer - Merge Dragons (Unity) Austin, TX Chicago, IL Toronto, Ontario Canada [C# Git C++ Unreal R Go Unity]
2023.06.04 09:30 ShadowCreature098 Tarot + oracle advice. Anyone is welcome❤
Tarot readings with oracle advice in the end. Choose a spread for your situation or ask your own question(s)❤ We can figure it out together.
Hello! My name is Eline and I would like to say that anyone is welcome and any amount of donation is appreciated. I'll do the reading as soon as I recieve your donation or asap when I'm free again (usually same day or within 3 days max). I will need initials or first name.
I have spreads I've saved over time that might speak to you and your situation but I can of course also answer the question you have yourself and add to it. 2 clarifiers max allowed after the reading.
You'll recieve a written reading via reddit along with a picture of the reading.
I use 3 decks mainly and if you would like to choose between them yourself you can let me know❤
🚩🚩Donations up front via paypal. I've also decided that I want to give back to the people who come to me more frequently so starting from the 25th of january 2023 you'll get a free 3-5 card reading everytime you've donated a total of 25 euro. Weather that be after 3 readings or 1. 🚩🚩
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2023.06.04 09:25 SWMobileStorage SHIPPING CONTAINER TERMS TO KNOW
Shipping containers have become common in our modern world, from construction sites and ports to portable offices, modular buildings and more. However, for those unfamiliar, shipping container terminology and jargon can be confusing and overwhelming. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at some of the shipping container terminology you need to know to understand the language of shipping containers.
13 SHIPPING CONTAINER TERMS TO KNOW
Whether you’re a business owner looking to ship your products overseas or simply curious about how these massive steel boxes work, we’ve got you covered. This guide will give you the knowledge you need to navigate the world of shipping container terminology.
The standard shipping container is 8’ 6” tall, and the most common container sizes are 20 and 40 feet long. They’re created out of Corten steel, a type of weathering steel resistant to weather effects. Typical containers have double cargo doors on one end and an end frame on the other.
1. DOOR HEADER
A door header is an integral part of the container’s structure. It’s a horizontal beam that runs along the top of the cargo doors, adding support for the roof, distributing storage weight and strengthening the security of the doors to the container. For modified containers that add roll-up doors, the plate protects the roll-up door barrel.
2. DOOR GASKET
Seals called gaskets
are installed around the cargo doors to prevent moisture, dust, and other contaminants from entering the container’s storage space. These gaskets are lodged in channels and grooves around the perimeter of the door frame. They’re also a crucial part of the container’s wind and weather-tight qualities.
3. LOCK BOX
Here at Southwest Mobile Storage, we use a three-tiered system to make sure our containers offer vault-level security. Lock boxes are a critical security feature we install on shipping containers that prevent unauthorized access to stored materials.
When a padlock is enclosed in a steel lock box, it becomes much more difficult to successfully gain access inside a container. Moreover, potential thieves must use cutting or drilling, deterring criminals that don’t have the time or energy to deal with the challenge.
4. SLIDE BOLT
The second part of our container security system is our slide bolt. When closed, a heavy-duty puck lock can be attached to the circular spot inside the slid bolt frame, creating another layer of security to deter break-ins.
5. DOOR LOCKING HANDLE
Our container security system’s third step is the door-locking handle. The handles aid in opening and closing the doors and have the capability to lock in their final resting place, situated beneath the container locking tabs. The locking tabs are lockable with padlocks, thus providing a final seal for container security.
6. DOOR PANEL
The door panel of a container allows access to the inside of your container and holds the other components attached to the door, like locking bars. Each door is made of thick steel and can swing 270 degrees outward.
7. LOCKING BARS
The locking bars span the width of the container’s door opening and attach to the end frame on each side of the door. Handles located on the exterior of the container typically operate the locking bars, which rods or cables connect to.
The door-locking handles secure the locking bars in place, holding the doors securely closed and preventing them from opening during transportation. Two locking bars are standard in 20-foot containers, while larger 40-foot containers may have four or more.
8. FORKLIFT POCKETS
One of the biggest benefits of using a container for storage is that you can easily transport it. Containers can be transported by forklifts
using the two pockets on the bottom sides of the container. From here, they can be transported on-site or onto a truck bed for delivery to a location farther away.
9. CORNER CASTING
Corner castings serve an essential role in maintaining your container’s structure. These eight 3.0mm thick corner castings have some of the thickest steel on the container, allowing containers to be stacked and handled securely. You can stack a maximum of nine containers, but this limit may be lower depending on local conditions.
10. TOP SIDE RAIL
The top side rail of a container helps provide structure to the roof. That helps distribute weight evenly across the top of the container. It also ensures a level surface that prevents stacked containers from shifting during transportation.
11. SIDE PANEL
The corner posts, top rails, and bottom rails work together with container side panels to create a rigid frame that distributes weight. Corrugated side panels, which have distinctive ridges and grooves add strength and flexibility. These panels enclose the storage area and prevent stored materials from moving around when properly stored.
12. END FRAME
A container end frame is a structural component of a shipping container located at the end of the container. Thus, the rectangular frame made of steel provides stability to the back of the container.
13. BOTTOM RAILS
The bottom side rail performs a crucial function in holding up the rest of the container, acting as the primary load-bearing component of the container. It connects to the bottom corner castings to lock on to containers beneath.
After this list, you should better understand shipping container terminology and how the different parts of a container work together to provide you with secure storage space. Moreover, knowing what container parts do can give you the confidence to undertake repair projects
or inspire you to modify a container for a specific use
If you’re interested in learning more about shipping containers and the terminology associated with them, we have several helpful blog posts that can help you deepen your understanding. Some popular topics include container sizes, types, and uses, as well as shipping container modifications and creative reuse ideas. Other posts may cover topics such as best practices for container shipping and handling, and container design and modification. Click on a link below for more insights!
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2023.06.04 09:25 AutoModerator [Download Course] Ning Li & Austin Lee – Zero to $6K (Genkicourses.site)
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Get the course here: [Download Course] Ning Li & Austin Lee – Zero to $6K (Genkicourses.site)
Our website: https://www.genkicourses.site/product/ning-li-austin-lee-zero-to-6k/
Today, I’m going to show you a step-by-step system to go from complete copywriting beginner to making up to $6,000 a month… in just 8 weeks
You see, as a freelance copywriter, all it takes is one email to change your life.
Because all you need is one high-quality client to say, “Yes, I’ll hire you”…
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You may think this is completely outside your reality right now…
But I promise you, it’s not.
With the template I’m about to show you, it’s absolutely possible for a beginner copywriter to achieve this in just 2 short months, and I’ll prove it to you.
> Even if you have never landed a single client in your entire life and have ZERO connections…
> Even if you’ve tried copywriting courses in the past and haven’t gotten anywhere…
> And even if you’ve sent tons of emails and messages to clients without a response.
Oh, and our system will let you get clients regardless of the economic conditions.
(With more people than ever bored & buying stuff from home — the demand for good copy has never been higher.)
This proven system lets beginner copywriters close high-paying clients.
Using easy, step-by-step emails with copy-and-paste templates…
This system has worked for 31 out of 36 copywriting students I’ve taught it to…
And today, it can absolutely work for YOU.
You see, since January 2017, my friend Austin and I have coached an exclusive group of 36 copywriters as part of Derek Johanson’s CopyHour Certified Coaching Program…
It was a tightly knit and closed group… with each student paying up to $5,500 to learn these secrets from us.
The majority of these students started right where you are today…
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Simply put, CopyHour Certified Coaching has been one of the most successful freelance copywriting programs, EVER.
All we do is teach our students this simple step-by-step process…
And they regularly go from total newbies to making $2,000… $5,000… or even more per month in just 8 weeks.
If you're wondering why our courses are priced lower than the original prices and are feeling a bit suspicious (which is understandable), we can provide proof of the course's contents. We can provide a screenshot of the course's contents or send you a freebie, such as an introduction video or another video from the course, to prove that we do have the course. Should you wish to request proof, we kindly ask you to reach out to us.
Please be aware that our courses do not include community access. This is due to the fact that we do not have the authority to manage this feature. Despite our desire to incorporate this aspect, it is, unfortunately, unfeasible.
Explore affordable learning at Genkicourses.site
🎓! Dive into a world of quality courses handpicked just for you. Download, watch, and achieve more without breaking your budget.
2023.06.04 09:23 Sea-Ambassador-2221 Please suggest me a place to stay all daylong
Hello, i am here in sophia since the last couple of days, but today i have to checkout the apartment and my flight is in the evening...the weather is not so good and i am looking for a place to stay all daylong, maybe eat something and charge my phone...where can i go? I am thinking something like a mall, to reach by foot. I am in the center of the city. Thank you for any suggestion
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2023.06.04 09:23 Miserable-Bother-311 Is Paula’s Choice BHA life-changing?
Hello all! I’ve been on 0.025% tret since mid-2020, grade 1-2 acne. Did short contact therapy for a solid 3 years (tolerance built up to 2 hours every night), and recently upgraded to overnight application with a Micro gel formula.
My acne has been manageable - but lately, whether it’s hormones or the weather or purge from the new tret formulation, I’ve been needing some extra care. Over the past few months I’ve added in Niacinamide and Azelaic acid, as well as AHA and BHA.
My routine -
24F, Oily acne prone skin, prone to dehydration and barrier sensitivity, in hot and humid weather Main concern - acne and PIE/PIH, mild congestion
- Bioderma Sebium Gel Moussant
- Cosrx Snail Mucin
- (on alternate days) The Ordinary Niacinamide 10% + Zinc
- (only when required) Benzac 5%/Azelaic Acid 10% on spots (depending on the type of acne)
- Mist with One Thing Propolis + Honey
- Bioderma Atoderm Intensive Gel-Creme
- Suntique I’m Safe SPF 35 (indoors) OR Missha Essence Sun Milk SPF 50 (outside)
PM - (tret days) (2 times a week) - Bioderma Atoderm Huile de Douche - Mist with One Thing Propolis + Honey - Klairs Rich Moist Soothing Serum - Cosrx Snail Mucin - Bioderma Atoderm Intensive Gel-Creme - 0.025% Micro Tret Gel - Bioderma Atoderm Intensive Gel-Creme - Laneige Cica Sleeping Mask
(non tret days) - (if I’ve left the house) I’m from Fig Cleansing Balm - Lacsoft Lactic Acid Foam Cleanser (2 times a week) OR Bioderma Sebium Gel Moussant - Cosrx BHA - Cosrx Snail Mucin - The Ordinary 10% Azelaic Suspension on the spots only - Bioderma Atoderm Intensive Gel-Creme
The progress is there, but it’s slow. And a bit too slow - each month around my period I get a few new bumps. I get why it’s slow, most of the products I’m using are quite mild. Which is why I’m wondering - would introducing Paula’s Choice BHA Liquid Exfoliant bring about drastic change? Or should I just stick to the slow but mild routine?
I’ve not yet been able to find a satisfactory comparison between PC and Cosrx yet - most are either using it just for clogged pores and are not on tret.
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2023.06.04 09:19 Acousmetre78 Oh shit! Zelda is going gender binary this month! Who’s Link?
2023.06.04 09:17 Heon_X [PC] [H] Rocket Pass 16 Items & Fan Rewards [W] 1:10c / 1:2 NCRs / 3:1 NCVR (if not specified)
Wheels: - Torque TX Inverted: Grey [W] 50c - Floret Infinite: Lime, Orange, Cobalt, Burnt Sienna [W] 1:20c for Lime-Orange - Synastry: Orange, Pink [W] 50c, 50c - Starcade: Black, Lime, Orange, Grey, Burnt Sienna [W] 70c for Black - Bloomer: Black, Lime, Orange, Sky Blue, Cobalt, Forest Green, Grey, Burnt Sienna - Green Machine: Pink
Decals: - Haphazard: Purple, Pink, Burnt Sienna - Streamix: Sky Blue, Lime, Cobalt, Saffron, Pink, Grey, Burnt Sienna - Sandscape: Sky Blue, Lime, Orange, Forest Green, Saffron, Burnt Sienna - Spotdrop: Black, Crimson, Cobalt, Grey [W] 30c for Black - Xtra: Titanium White, Black, Crimson, Sky Blue, Lime, Orange, Saffron, Purple, Grey, Burnt Sienna [W] 30c for TW
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2023.06.04 09:13 jk54545 One of the best 24mm F1.8 lens from a 3rd party manufacturer!
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If you are looking for a wide-angle lens for Nikon Z mount, Viltrox 24mm F1.8 Z mount lens is a Fantastic option at its price point. Here are the reasons why.
The lens has an all-metal build right from mount to body to focus and aperture rings. Though the lens hood is plastic, it is compact and doesn’t feel cheap. 55mm Filter thread of the lens is not common and might add up to the expense for a new ND or CPL filters. The lens is compact and lightweight making it more balanced and practical to use. Although Viltrox 24mm F1.8 Z mount lens lack weather sealing, I was pleasantly surprised that it was able to protect the sensor of my Nikon Z6II from the dew formation during over-night filming of starts. Aperture ring makes some squeaky noise upon turning but it could be just from my copy. The grooves on the aperture ring makes it convenient to turn. Manual focus ring is just smooth and the it has relatively short focus throw which is convenient for photography. USB Type-C is available on the mount through which firmware updates can be made. This is neat!
When mounted on my Nikon Z6ii camera, the autofocus performed adequately good. It is definitely not good enough to film fast moving subjects but it wasn’t hunting and was smooth enough not to cause any distraction. Autofocus motors are surprisingly quiet which is very good for videos. I use Wide Area AF face-tracking and Auto Area AF face-tracking modes depending on the situation. If the subject would move throughout the frame, then I would choose Auto Area AF mode and when filming interviews or making review videos, I would prefer Wide Area AF face-tracking mode. AF-F mode is my preferred AF mode for video to track the subject while in photos, I prefer AF-C mode. These are the AF settings that works best for Nikon Z6ii.
Image quality from this lens is absolutely fantastic! Videos and photos are sharp and bokeh is smooth throughout the out of focus regions. There is a little vignetting around the corners that can be distracting at times, but if you are careful to embrace it, it could add character to your videos and photos. I am just amazed by the smoothness of the focus fall-off from the subject to the background. This is adorable. There is a tiny bit of chromatic aberration which can be cleaned up in post. Lens flaring is not much of an issue in regards to this lens.
I purchased this lens mainly for the astrophotography and it did a good job! I started using this lens more often now for vlogging during lowlight. If I need a tighter short, I would just change the camera to DX-mode which would give me 36mm F2.7 Full Frame equivalent focal length. This is a very convenient combination.
If you are in the market looking for a 24mm focal length prime lens, I would highly recommend you to check this out. This is a perfect lens for low light and street photography as well.
You can find the latest firmware for Viltrox 24mm F1.8 Z mount here: https://viltrox.com/newsinfo/5907415.html