Does walmart accept brandsource credit card


2011.07.15 13:13 thekiwifish Shopify

Welcome to /Shopify! Empowering business owners around the world.

2016.07.27 13:34 Oberlo

Oberlo is a Dropshipping App by Shopify, it help you find products to sell on your Shopify store

2018.01.04 02:02 Valura Lockchain The First Hotel Booking & Vacation Rental marketplace With 0% Commissions Blockchain powered marketplace & Technology, where hoteliers and property owners can rent their property globally, collect money and manage bookings without paying any commissions to middlemen.

2023.06.03 09:45 The_Dying_Swan Gemini - FREE $15 Bitcoin + $15 Bitcoin per referral

Gemini is a crypto exchange similar to Nexo. They have an app and desktop platform too.
Their current Promotion gives new users $15 in Bitcoin (BTC) when they:
* sign up with a referral link
* buy or sell $100 worth of crypto
See proof here.

1. Gemini referral link - tap & sign up - free $15 Bitcoin
2. Verification / KY
3. Link your bank account
4. Deposit $100 worth of GBP or EUR (£90 should suffice) – this will give you 3 options. I deposited using the recommended option “Bank account instantly via Plaid”
5. OPTIONAL Step: On your computer (using the desktop version and NOT mobile), tap “Account” -> “Settings” -> “Active Trader (Advanced)”.
* If you trade, it’s recommended that you do it on your computer to take advantage of the lower fees associated with their “Active Trader “ which is only available when using the web version (and not the mobile app)
6. Trade $100 worth of crypto by using the desktop website using the “Active Trader” Exchange screen -> “dropdown menu” -> BTC-GBP -> enter £90 in the GBP tab -> tap “Buy”
7. You are awarded $15 in Bitcoin shortly after, but they advise it can take up to 2 days
8. Sell your crypto back to GBP and withdraw to your UK bank account

* FIAT deposits and withdrawals to bank accounts are free
* Crypto deposits are free
* Using a debit card will incur a 3.49% fee (hence deposit directly from you bank account which is free)
* Gemini have other Promotions for much larger deposits ($500+ or $1,000+)

Referral Programme
Refer a Friend
Platform Fees

non-ref - no bonus
submitted by The_Dying_Swan to beermoneyuk [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 09:43 LawrenceCPTUSA Interesting Interview

Process thus far, wanted to share some information and some insights for my fellow lurkers on here. Sorry for length.
Each agency is different but the biggest issue is honesty. If you find out you made an error on your SF86 it isn’t the end of the world. Be honest about the error and make it easier for the whole process by having evidence in hand to send or show during interview. This forum talks a lot about the whole person concept snd use the interview as a way to discuss what problems you may have had but it’s ok to bring up how you have improved. Take ownership of what happened because it’s your clearance no one else’s. Honesty is key!! Have additional contacts available because they may have already tried to call collaterals and they were not available. If you have any questions please PM me and I’ll reply as I can.
Timeline 3/16 Job Closed 4/6 Interview 4/21 CJO; TS Clearance Required 5/5 Clearance Coordinator phone meeting to talk about eQIP and quick discussion about drugs and foreign travel. After this meeting eQIP link sent 5/8 eQIP submitted 5/10 eQIP accepted 5/10 agency requires FBI check for my wife, paperwork sent, signed, and returned. 5/11 Soft check on credit report. 5/17 Received email saying fingerprints received and processed. 5/31 Investigator called and set up interview over teams. 6/1 Interview lasted 3 hours. 6/2 People I listed were contacted for meetings with investigator (they called me).
Red flags: Used one THC gummy March 2020, truck and motorcycle repo during divorce 2019/2020. Charge off on 3 credit cards. Total issue $32K.
Green Flags: Previous secret, previous TS for 19 years, public trust, when I ate the gummy it was 3 years after I left federal employment and even though PT was there it was inactive and I wasn’t working. Current job has a law enforcement BI, psych, poly, and I carry a badge (I am not a cop though). No foreign contacts. Zero law enforcement actions. Just bought a house.
First issue was the fingerprints because I had to mail them it took a while to get confirmation they were goo to go.
Interview was 3 hours, investigator was really nice and personable. When he called m to set up interview he said we will talk in depth about financial issues, and foreign travel. He sounded ominous and told me to pull my annual credit report and start working issues.
When I pulled it later in the day I found some items besides my repos that didn’t come up when I bought my house or during my background check for current job. I saw I had three credit cards that were charged off in 2017/2018 and had balances. So I called two of them s d paid them off and got a zero balance letter. The third one I called they sent me to a collections agency and collections didn’t have an account for me. I took screen shots of the website to show no account was present with my info.
Investigator and I start going over the SF86. When finances came up he told me what he had found. He asked why I did not list the charge offs I told him it didn’t come up during home buying and BI for work. I told him I had found the items and whole talking emailed the pay off from earlier in the day and screen shots. I apologized for missing it and told him wasn’t trying to hide it. He was happy I was proactive and had a plan in place. He said I was open and candid about the repos and with all dates around my divorce it was able to “tell a story” about my fuck up financially.
Take Away, review your annual report it has much more detail than credit apps show. Have a plan in place for red flags, be open and forthcoming on the how and why you have the issues. Have emails, receipts, or screenshots so it shows you give a damn
Drug use conversation was hard because I had never used any drugs previously and because of one gummy I had to talk about it. The biggest take away for anyone reading is he talked about that agencies are having to adapt to the fact weed is legal in a lot of places and they have to look at it differently. I explained I was waiting for my 14th sinus surgery and at the beginning of Covid I couldn’t get into a doc for pain meds (I’m allergic to a lot of over the counter meds) and wanted to try a gummy to see if it would help. It didn’t and I was embarrassed I had even tried it and would never try it again. Because of agency specific timeline a lot of questions didn’t apply because it was out of scope.
***Take Away be honest, don’t down play it and tell your story. Don’t rely on “it’s legal what’s the big deal”.
Foreign travel section had an issue because I messed up the date that showed I was in Ireland for a year, but under comments I shared where I was for the 10 days on vacation.
Take Away, double check dates! Use the comments section. If you know you have recent foreign travel make a list of cities, where you stayed (hotel, air B&B, tent). One thing that surprised me the specifics about how many drinks I had each day.
Now the wait continues. I am hoping I will get an interim and be able to start work.
submitted by LawrenceCPTUSA to SecurityClearance [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 09:17 JamesHowell91 How do our household outgoings look?

Thought I’d try and get a view of what our outgoings look like.
I pay annual in advance for my football season ticket (£530), our car tax (£570 plus £170 odd), my car insurance (£450) and our house insurance (£130).
HHI after pension 6,963
Joint bills
Mortgage (916) - 0.99% until Jan-27, 215k left
Kitchen (176) - interest-free 22m left
Octopus Energy (154) - tracker tariff
Water (24)
TV Licence (13)
BT Sport and Internet (66)
Council Tax (211) - payable only 10m of year
Pet Insurance (6)
My bills
Mobile (10) - SIM only
Swim (29)
Apple Storage (1)
Jaguar F-Pace (163) - 0% credit card payment
Wifey bills
Netflix (12)
Amazon Prime (8)
Car Insurance (38)
Mobile (10) - SIM only
Apple Storage (3)
Private Parking (62)
Clothes (202)
Remaining 4,862
I then allow myself spend of around £700 per month.
Wifey gets £1,400 as she does all the groceries (£500), beauty (£200) and her £700 general spending.
We are both in the office 5 days a week so within our £700 is circa. £150 of fuel costs each.
I know some of you are going to say wifey doesn’t need to have her hair and nails done every month and doesn’t need to treat herself to the odd designer item but she works and deserves to have the things that make her happy.
What is left goes into ISA and towards holidays.
Does anything here look disproportionate to what others are paying?
submitted by JamesHowell91 to UKPersonalFinance [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 08:47 Akario_ I messed up! Mistakes were made!

TL;DR: I got scammed into buying a property and a business where the owner promised me the company could pay for the mortgage and then some, only to find out it was a dead business!? And the buildings needed expansion permits and water meters because the owner had it set up as residential and not commercial. I began with a mistake; around January of 2023, I was convinced by my dad and uncle to buy a property partnered with my uncle; essentially, my uncle and I were going to pay for it via a mortgage.
Now let me give a bit of background to this. First, this all takes place in Puerto Rico, and as you know, PR, well... it's not in the best state, I guess you could say; as for me, I was 21 at the time with no knowledge about real estate what's so ever, so as you can already see we're starting on the wrong foot, as for my dad he knows a couple of things but surface level nothing too profound, now as for my uncle his the one who brought us the deal. My uncle works on a small business owned by the property owner, also located on the property my uncle was offered. According to the owner, he wanted to sell the property to someone who would also take over the Air conditioning business. His sons didn't want it and were doing their own thing, so he decided to sell it to my uncle AKA "the son he never had," however my uncle, well, he doesn't have the money, and that's where I come in at the time I had recently received a lot of money from some insurance my dad had done a long time ago so my uncle came to us and pretty much sold us on the dream that the owner had promised which entailed the following: first from an original price of 1 million dollars he would sell it to us by half $500k it is a 3.88-acre approx. property and has two buildings, one large building divided into 4, two used by the owner's business. At the same time, the rest are for storage, and the other building is a container with a garage. There were also two other containers, but they were pretty messed up and only used for storage. But the cherry on top was that he was going to give us the business and that with the business, we would be able to pay for the mortgage as well as grow plus, he was going to stay with us every step of the way for the next six months also it was a ten year 0% fixed interest rates with a 25k down payment. the owner flexed about how much the company made, how he owned X, Y, and Z, and that he had traveled to many places, etc., and like good little trusting fools, we bought into it.
I'm not that social my communication sucks and I'm way to passive I all ways had my questions and doubts but I never mustered the courage to state them or anything my dad and my uncle were full on head first trusting especially my uncle since he had been working there for years and according to him the business was doing great and moving a lot of money (emphasis on "Moving"), my dad did ask some important questions about numbers and debts and other things but the "numbers" were never really shown only checks and words that were tossed around with a lot of "yeah, yeah tomorrow" or "soon" it's also important to note that both my uncle and my dad can be quite gullible for reasons that we shan't name but yeah after merely a couple of weeks passed everything was extremely fast and rushed and we were told we could go seal up the deal anytime and we went with a lot of trust and hopes and so we took over the business and we quickly found out how false and shit everything was starting with day one the owner left for vacation and along with him went the promise to stay with us for the next six months and guide us we didn't even have access to the company's bank accounts till nearly a moth later so I spent the first moth learning with the secretary wtf I had in my hands and I quickly learned that what I had in my hands was a near dead horse full of NEGATIVE RED NUMBERS! as well as a horrible infrastructure and a hand full of angry clients that hadn't been tended to for weeks or a month and also an imbalance between income vs expenses I check with the business bank and its history for the past couple of years and found it full of negative numbers now I have no idea to this day what the hell the owner was doing whether he was laundering money, avoiding taxes, using the business as a credit card I say this because every time he made a check with NSF (non-sufficient funds) it would still be accepted and not returned essentially the bank would pay it and the account would go negative and he kept injecting into the account every now and then and especially at the end of the month to close the moth positive or some sort of other trick (I don't know if that's common and some business operate like that since I've never seen others operate like that I hope you guys can explain that one to me) but yeah that about sums it up after that I decided to detach my self from the company and leave my owner ship to my uncle but stay with the property to get some rent going because I did see some potential in that with a payment of $4000 a moth I could have cover that and then some but that was until I quickly found out how bad the infrastructure of the whole buildings was a long with some other issues like a building expansion with out permit and that we had to pay $10k+ to restore water to the buildings which we knew that there was a debt of like $600 with the water company which according to the owner some people stole his water connections cause they were made of copper and were exposed and spent 3 days leaking but the 10k is not for the debt which he said he would cover and he did its because he had the water system as residential and not comercial so there was only one water meter and we had to pay for the whole set up as well as add additional water meters. and that's it. I think that covers it; remember that this happened fast in about a month.
Yesterday I finished up with the layer and stuff to undo all this. Thankfully it went smoothly with no issues with the owner or anything well, minus another long wait for him to come back cause the owner had left once again, this time for medical reasons, but such is life overall. I lost like 40k-50k during the whole thing. Some fail, and some win. Still, I've been studying hard since all this happened to avoid repeating these mistakes. I want to think I've improved overall since before this, all I ever did was just stay locked up 24/7 playing games and stuff; I don't regret it much since it was also a great lesson and scary yet necessary experience this single step, this single mistake shattered all lack of confidence, nearly all shyness (still working on that one) and all absence of motivation now I'm simply going to push forward and this time I'm starting small one step at a time.
submitted by Akario_ to realestateinvesting [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 08:35 Remarkable_Village96 Does anybody know if depop accepts Google pay? I tried to put my visa gift card in Google pay it keeps saying transaction can not be completed?

submitted by Remarkable_Village96 to Depop [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 07:40 MarbleCrawdad65 Good Card to Finish My Wallet

* Current credit cards you are the primary account holder of: •Capital One Quicksilver, $2300, 01/2021 •Discover It CashBack, $2500, 01/2022 •AmEx Blue Cash Everyday, $4000, 01/2023
* FICO Scores with source: Experian 744, TransUnion (Vantage 3.0) 752
* Oldest credit card account age with you as primary name on the account: C1 QS 2 Years and 5 months
* Number of personal credit cards approved for in the past 6 months: 1 (AmEx)
* Number of personal credit cards approved for in the past 12 months: 1 (AmEx)
* Number of personal credit cards approved for in the past 24 months: 2 (Discover, AmEx)
* Annual income $: Around 40K-50K
* OK with category-specific cards?: YES
* OK with rotating category cards?: YES
* Estimate average monthly spend in the categories below. Only include what you can pay by credit card.
* Dining $: 100-120 * Groceries $: 400 * Gas $: 400 * Travel $: 0 * Do you plan on using this card abroad?: I am staying in America. * Any other significant, regular credit card spend you didn't include above?: Walmart, Sam's Club, Academy Sports, Auto Repair, Etc.
* Can you pay rent by credit card? If yes, list rent amount and if there's a fee for paying by credit card: $ NO
* Are you open to Business Cards?: NO PURPOSE
* What's the purpose of your next card?: Save Money
* Do you have any cards you've been looking at? Capital One SavorOne, Chase Freedom Flex, Citi Custom Cash. I'm open to your recommendations.
I'd like to get CashBack on as much as I can with as few cards possible. Right now I have •Capital One Quicksilver: 1.5%CB on all purchases. •Discover has Rotating categories that give 5% CB (usually Groceries, Gas, Wholesale Club, Restraunts, etc.) •Amex Blue Cash Everyday: 3% CB on Gas, Groceries, and Online Purchases.
submitted by MarbleCrawdad65 to CreditCards [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 07:35 mazharlys Differences between cash based accounting and accrual accounting

Cash-based accounting and accrual accounting are two different methods used in financial accounting to record and report a company's financial transactions. Here are the key differences between the two:
  1. Timing of Revenue and Expenses Recognition:
  1. Basis of Recording Transactions:
  1. Financial Statement Presentation:
  1. Compliance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP):
  1. Financial Analysis and Decision Making:
In summary, cash-based accounting focuses on actual cash movements, while accrual accounting matches revenues and expenses to the period in which they occur, regardless of cash flow. Accrual accounting provides a more comprehensive and accurate view of a company's financial position and performance, and it is the standard method used in financial reporting.
submitted by mazharlys to Accounting [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 07:07 LowkeySuicidal14 Confusion about credit card payment.

Have got my credit card a month back and spent around 1860 rs with it. My billing date shows 5th of June but i had already paid the entire bill (supposedly) like 10 - 12 days back on around 18th may. Now in the app it shows the bill to be 1866 and below it it says "1866 recieved in the current cycle". What does this mean, is it paid? Or do i have to pay it? Will it carry forward in the next month which would be bad.
I'm very new to this whole thing so I'm super confused.
submitted by LowkeySuicidal14 to CreditCardsIndia [link] [comments]


Contact JahCoin#5396 - Or join if interested!
What can this be used for? - Boosting your mw2 stats - Levelling up any guns - Maxing out all your weapons easily - No grind needed for your camos easily obtian gold, platinum, Polyatomic and Orion with just a few games
How does it work? - All bots are run off PS5s, and are completely safe to play against. - They'll stand more or less still, moving periodically to avoid AFK timers. - They'll fire randomly, but never attack you. - It's completely safe for you. All the kills and stats you get in game will count as if it were a real match.
NORMAL / SHIPMENT BOT LOBBY PRICES: - 1 Bot Lobby - $7 - 3 Bot Lobbies - $20 - 5 Bot Lobbies - $29 - 10 Bot Lobbies - $57 - 20 Bot Lobbies - $105 - 50 Bot Lobbies - $240
LONGSHOT BOT LOBBY PRICES: - 1 Longshot Bot Lobby - $11 - 3 Longshot Bot Lobbies - $30 - 5 Longshot Bot Lobbies - $47 - 10 Longshot Bot Lobbies - $87 - 20 Longshot Bot Lobbies - $165
NUKE SERVICE - Get the calling card, skin, and emblem! - $85 - ( will need account details, can be done in ~a day )
RULES / MUST READ - 1.If there is another player running around Do Not Kill! They are not a bot, bots will all have the same operator for easy identification! - 2.Never use any Player Killing kill-streaks! Replace your streaks for a UAV and Advanced UAV only! This is going to help speed up your kills and tracking of the players. Do not use counter UAVs, SAEs, Chopper Gunners, VTOLs, Ect. You may effect the lobby of the another person. - 3.Equip a grenade! Equip a Tactical Insert! Equip Scavenger Perk for ammunition. Equip Eagle Eye! When you have 20-25 kills (shortly after an advanced UAV is recommended so you don't accidently NUKE), place a Tactical Insert near the spawn to avoid running around and run 15 feet to kill yourself, and pull your standard grenade and hold in hand until it blows. - 4.Never use nuke! Nuke will end the game, and nuke is a high risk of being banned. You may be penalized one game if you call in a nuke.
Notice of how to play: Domination: Spawn and capture your nearest flag. Avoid B. Run to their spawn and murder! Capturing B will cause the game to end faster. This is at your own cost!
Discord: JahCoin#5396 - Discord with Vouches:
submitted by JahCoin456 to GamingMarket [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 06:21 ALEXMARTINOSVICTIM CEO Andrew Imbesi of Boge Group, is simply ripping people off.

ANDREW IMBESI is CEO of Boge Group, which promises to get you over $100,000 in 0% financing for your business. I paid $500 toward $9000 as a success fee, which I am familiar with. The first thing my Boge counselor Oscar did was refer me to their 'outside' partners to raise my credit score.... to the tune of $5000.
I very unhappily told Andrew that I was already paying his company $9,000. He agreed the $5,000 was too much, and referred me to the In-House credit assistant....who wanted to charge me $2,500 for the same credit repair. I was really insulted. My personal credit scores were 620, 670, and 680.
Over the next several weeks, I went back and forth with them, and in the interim, my personal coach Oscar unsubscribed himself as my coach without and discourse, nor reason.
Problems. Contract.


Apr 8, 2023, 3:25 PM cthomas1, oland, kimlandrum, BogeGroup.
Hello Andrew and Boge Group,
1. I'm unable to find Carole or Kim on Voxer. Step 1: Download Voxer and Send us a Message! This will be our main point of communication and how we will connect with one another throughout the duration of the program. Through this "Walkie-Talkie" App, we will be able to:
You will want to send a message to one of our Funding Supervisors below, that way we can create your 1-on-1 groupchat.
2. I was hoping to connect with another funding coach, because I know Oscar is dealing with his father's passing; and when I informed him that this link goes directly to your Online Youtube ad Andrew, and please send the link to the actual trainings, I never got the correct link from him. 📷 The above link goes directly to Andrews Youtube Ad. 3. I also can't find the coaches on Discord.📷 4. I still haven't located the training videos. 5. So, over a month into the contract, I still don't have:1. a. Personalized Action Plan.2. The only referral Partner I spoke with of your wanted to charge me $5000 to remove the late payments, and your contract mentions nothing about the extra-outside charge. Even your in-house guy wanted to charge me $2000. 3. a. Where are the training videos? b. I have no CPI sheet, and my coach Oscar literally stated that your Credit Polishing includes removing late payments. It was after this Voxer comm that Andrew told me the credit polishing does not include removing late payments. This is a deceitful business practice. c. I'm already LLC'd. d. Where is my Student Journey Map?4. I can't find anybody from Boge on Discord.5. My "Guaranteed" 1-on-1 Accountability & Support is non-existent. I've asked Oscar to send me the direct link to the videos more than once, but I still don't have that info; Oscar only replies when I Vox him first. The last I heard from him was on April 1st, an entire week ago. He hasn't responded to my voxers since.Andrew and Oscar have contradicted each other contractually regarding the credit polishing, which is a contract breach; and you even have credit repair in-house! For $9,000, I expect a much higher caliber of service and performance. You deceived me. Please do not scam me. Alex Martino scammed my family out of $40,000 working capital last year, which is why I am seeking funding. You can read all about what he did in my book. I have a social media campaign to accompany this book, that is launching very soon. Please don't make me take to social media with reviews regarding BogeGroup's non-performance of the contract. I'm very friendly and understanding, however, this is how I respond to being scammed going forward. You already have a very shaky scam detector score. I already sent a letter to the 3 bureaus and the CFPB, demanding the late payments be removed.
This is what I will accept to resolve the many problems that I have elucidated above. 1. As confirmed by Oscar that your Credit Polishing includes removing late payments, you will take this over in-house.2. You send working links to your training videos.3. You assign Carole Thomas as my Coach, and we zoom to create my Personalized Action Plan, and assist me with Discord.4. You cease sending these ridiculous daily emails....we're already under contract! I look forward to your response no later than Monday, 5pm, PST. Yours Truly, Rima
I received a call from Andrew the next day, and he said his service was really nothing more than referring his clients to his outside connection (who charge a fortune), and really nothing more than that. He added that he had already closed my contract and refunded my $500. Shameful. Don't do business with people whose ads are splashing all over the internet. Andrew's ads will stop running shortly.
submitted by ALEXMARTINOSVICTIM to CEOAndrewImbesiBoge [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 06:20 TBONE-999 Do People Really Win Anything On CRED

Many of us use CRED to pay off our credit card bills, and possibly other bills, meanwhile earning virtual coins that can be used to play for rewards. My question is, does anyone actually “WIN” anything playing the slots which promotes jackpots?
I know many who use CRED for its ease of use, and not once have I heard or come across a person winning anything on it. All I see is worthless coupons that are eventually expire.
submitted by TBONE-999 to india [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 06:11 ZOMMBOTT1 Hi, reaaally quick question

I've just been gifted 2 weeks of free nitro, but it's not letting me accept it without putting in credit card or paypal information. Is there any way to redeem it without putting in said information?
submitted by ZOMMBOTT1 to discordapp [link] [comments]


WILD MAN: Saint or Sinner Posted on May 2, 2021by Dana Rehn The Representation of Wild Folk During the German Renaissance The wild man was inspired in part by pagan hybrid woodland creatures like the satyr, however, much of the mythology of the wild man stems from barbarians of Europe.[i] For much of the Middle Ages, they were considered the antithesis of the civilised Christian society. They were cannibalistic, sexually deviant predators whose many characteristics were related to monstrous races as well as the insane. Despite the wild folk’s outsider status and the antithesis of Christian morality, the wild man and woman nevertheless became an icon of German nationalism. The image of the wild man and woman became a pervasive figure throughout the German Renaissance, depicted on a vast range of media from stained glass, woolen tapestry, playing cards (fig. 3), and ordinary household objects. The wild man and woman transitioned from a demonic brute beast to a romanticised image of the noble savage. They recall a simpler time in German history and became a part of the image of a united and strong German people. They also posed as an affront to the court culture of Rome and became associated with the virtues of the natural wilderness. Cleric, Johann Geiler von Kaysersberg, associated them with the image of the hairy saints who found redemption in the wilderness by categorising them as a type of wild man in Die Emeis.[ii] The German forests that the Wild Man was thought to reside were starting to be romanticised. Geographer, Johannes Rauw, praised the ancient forests that had long been demonised by Italians as a place of barbarians.[iii] From rapists of damsels, wild men were depicted with the virtues of the nuclear family in the Garden of Eden before ‘The Fall’ (Genesis 3). In this way, the wild man and woman became increasingly mythologised, merged with ancient Germans, ascetic saints as well as Adam and Eve. Although there were a growing number of romanticised images of the wild man and woman during the sixteenth century, negative representations persisted. Their depiction was not a simple shift from demonic woodland creature to the image of holy saints; many possessed both contradictory notions of sinner and sainthood. The multifaceted representation of wild folk reflected many of the contradictions of German Renaissance society. Man or Animal The reputation of the wild man stems from antiquity. Aristotle believed that people who lived outside the civilising influence of the urban city lacked the ability to reason.[iv] In this way, they were considered closer to animal than man, subjected to their impulses.[v] The wild man and woman were also believed to lack speech, used primitive tools such as the club, and lived away from civilisation.[vi] Even the food that the wild folk would eat – berries and uncooked food – was a mark of uncivilisation and thus associated them more with animals than man.[vii] Many were also thought to crawl on all fours, which is illustrated by the often bare knees of wild men and women.[viii] The wild man as well as the woman were characterised for their violence and unhinged rage. They both shared a love of combat and have even been depicted jousting against one another.[ix] It is not just appearance, but also behaviour that made someone bestial like peasants who were described with animal qualities. The wild man has also been associated with bears and mythology exists with bears who were able to transform into wild men.[x] Their unbridled sexuality was also more associated with animals. Wild men were thought to abduct pretty maidens, while the wild woman would transform herself into a beautiful woman and attempt to seduce men with her true ugliness only to be revealed during intercourse.[xi] In this way, they were also associated with other pagan and hairy woodland hybrid creatures from antiquity including satyrs and centaurs, who were also known for their immoral behaviour and insatiable sexual appetite.[xii] Albrecht Dürer combined classical mythology with German folklore in the engraving of the Abduction of Proserpine on a Unicorn (1516) (Fig. 1). The print recounts the mythology of the abduction of the goddess of fertility by Pluto (Hades), God of the underworld – the pagan equivalent to the Devil.[xiii] In place of the classical god is a wild man on the back of a unicorn. Although this wild man is not covered in think body hair, he has wild hair on top of his head and a large bushy beard. He is identified as a wild man by his riding of a unicorn where the wild man was believed to be the only creature strong enough to overpower it by force.[xiv] Unicorns were originally regarded as ferocious beasts who used their horn as a weapon.[xv] Tales and visual art from the fourteenth century tell of wild men who become tamed by love after abducting a woman.[xvi] Yet this print illustrates man’s sexuality was thought to reduce them to a brute beast. Fig 1. Albrecht Dürer, Abduction of Proserpine on a Unicorn, 1516, Etching, 30.8 x 21.3cm, The Institute, Chicago. During the Middle Ages, many people concluded that wild man and woman were degenerative humans. They became an irrational beast in the same way that the insane were believed to be a form of wild people. Medieval romances frequently described people who suffered a crisis and lost their mind and ran into the forest living as semi-human wild people.[xvii] In Hartmann von Aue’s (c. 1160/70- c. 1210/20) Iwein, the protagonist who has broken a promise to his wife and is rejected, roams around in the forest until he is discovered by a lady who saves him from his insanity.[xviii] The wilderness in part created the state for wildness as it was away from civilisation and rationality.[xix] Like many monsters during the period, the wild man and woman were defined by their nudity. In this way, they were symbolically outside civilisation – both physically and behaviourally.[xx] Even those who have become temporary wild men through madness and fled into the forest shed their clothes and only returned to civilisation by again putting their garments back on. While in the forest they begin to grow hair all over their body to signify their move away from the human realm and into the animal one.[xxi] The wild man and woman encapsulated the fears of Europeans and what happens to one if they abandon civilisation.[xxii] The theme of civilising the wild man was popular during the Middle Ages. It was knowledge and acceptance of the one true faith that inevitably brought the wild man back to civilisation.[xxiii] In a thirteenth-century Bavarian epic poem, republished in the sixteenth-century German collection of stories, Das Heldenbuch mit synen figuren (‘The Book of Heroes’), recounts a wild woman called Raue Else (‘Rough Else’). The woman who was hairy all over and walked on all fours approached the knight, Wolfdietrich, who questioned if she was an animal. [xxiv] The wild woman demanded the love of the knight and upon his refusal turned him into a crazed wild man who crawled on all fours for half a year until God commanded her to disenchant him. In return, Wolfdietrich offered to marry the wild woman so long as she was baptised. She took him back to her kingdom at Troy and after bathing in the fountain of youth she was transformed into her former self, the beautiful princess, Sigeminne (‘Love’s victory’).[xxv] Wild Man as Noble Savage Although the wild man and woman were frequently represented in literature during the Middle Ages, they were rarely depicted in visual art until the fifteenth century.[xxvi] Therefore, their most ferocious reputation left little mark in visual culture. Instead, the wild man and woman were frequently represented in Renaissance art as the image of purity, with their family representing the virtues of parenthood and a companion or as a saint. Lynn Frier Kaufmann argues that the idea of chivalry and courtly love during the Middle Ages influenced the way wild men and women were depicted during the Renaissance.[xxvii] Larry Silver on the other hand interpreted their new role as cultural emblems brought by the rise in Germanic nationalism, which inspired the new translation of Tacitus’s Germania, describing wild people who only wore a cape of animal’s hide, as the first proud inhabitants of the Germanic lands (for example, fig. 2) .[xxviii] In this way, Tacitus’s Germania transformed the wild man into the romanticised version of the noble savage during the German Renaissance.[xxix] They lived a simple and virtuous life. They needed no written laws because they had good morals and rejected the habits of outsiders.[xxx] The nobility and urban elite began to romanticise the wild man for their strength and freedom from the rules of society.[xxxi] Conrad Celtis described a counterpart to early Germans in the Lapps. He described them as speechless but also that they had not been corrupted with luxury, fame, or wine. ‘Here no jurist twists the law, no doctor accumulates his blood money, and no tonsured man plagues the people’.[xxxii] Fig. 2. Nicolaes van Geelkerken after Clüver in Philipp Clüver, Germaniae antiquae libri tres, Leiden: Louis Elzevir, 1616, Engraving, London, The Wellcome Library. Source: On a playing card by Master ES printed in c. 1461, a wild woman is depicted with a unicorn (fig. 3). While wild men overpower the unicorn with their bold ferocity, it was the wild woman’s sexual purity that allowed her to get close to the unicorn. A tale of the unicorn captured only by pure virgin maidens arose during the Middle Ages. This led to the unicorn being represented as a sign of purity and thus underscores the image of the wild woman as epitome of the noble savage.[xxxiii] A sense of innocence accompanies their ignorance of the civilized world. Playing cards usually consisted of four suits with illustrations of plants, animals, and heraldic symbols. The wild woman with the unicorn is one of four cards surviving in the animal suit by Master ES.[xxxiv] Richard Bernheimer suggests that the images on the cards represent a hierarchy.[xxxv] Therefore, it places the wild man and woman in the realm of animals.[xxxvi] This is plausible since this wild woman represents the Queen of the Animals. However, her clasping grip of the unicorn who is dwarfed by the wild woman shows her dominate position in nature. Fig. 3. Master ES, Wild Woman and Unicorn (Queen of Animals from the Small Playing) c. 1461, Engraving on Playing Card, 10.5 x 7.3cm (Sheet); 9.8 x (Plate), New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art. The wild man also featured in more than 200 coat-of-arms across Europe, most of which were in German lands.[xxxvii] They were particularly popular during the second-half of the fifteenth century.[xxxviii] Interestingly, the wild man was illustrated beside coats-of-arms of popes and kings as their protector or guardian of the coat-of-arms despite the wild man’s history as a heretical being.[xxxix] Roundel prints of coat-of-arms were likely used as templates for goldsmiths or glassmakers who would fill in the family crest.[xl] It has also been suggested that these roundels were used by the middle class to emulate the coat-of-arms of the nobility. The templates were used as a substitute for commissioned coat-of-arms.[xli] In Wild Woman and Heraldic Shield, c. 1490 (fig. 4), a wild woman suckling her baby is reminiscent of the Madonna and child. This image reveals the redemption of women through childbirth for their responsibility for Original Sin (Genesis 3.16). She also serves as an emblem for fertility for the family whose shield she holds to ensure the family line. Fig. 4. Martin Schongauer, Wild Woman and Heraldic Shield, Colmar, c. 1490, Engraving, 7.7 diam. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Return to the Garden of Eden The image of the noble savage in turn influenced the idyllic images of the wild family. Master bxg’s Wild Folk Family (c. 1475) parallel Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Adam and Eve who were portrayed in animal skins after ‘The Fall’ are akin to the hairiness of the wild family.[xlii] In Master bxg’s print stands the tree of knowledge, overlooked by an owl in the background, symbolising potential danger as owls served as a symbol for evil.[xliii] A rabbit bounds towards a forest in the top left. Rabbits were used as a symbol for fertility and has been depicted in images of Adam and Eve during ‘The Fall’ and thus can symbolise carnal knowledge. The wild woman’s long hair symbolises her fertility and thus her unbridled sexuality and parallels with the depiction of Eve in the Garden of Eden with long, loose flowing hair.[xliv] Although the representation of the wild family references Original Sin, they are still in a state of nature and innocence and their ignorance of God therefore cannot constitute sin.[xlv] However, it also provides a mirror of the tensions between good and evil within German Renaissance society – between temptation and godliness.[xlvi] The wild family not only recall Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, but also the image of the Holy Family who were often represented against the backdrop of the wilderness.[xlvii] In a comparative print in Hans Leonhart Schäufelein’s, Wild Man and Wild Woman originally printed in c.1520 (fig.5), the wild family are still hairy and naked, although they wear fig leaves to help preserve their modesty. The fig leaves allude to after ‘The Fall’ in the Garden of Eden once they have eaten from the tree of knowledge and realise their nakedness and feel shame. In this way, the sins of the past are not completely forgotten. However, the image lies in opposite to the unbridled sexuality of the earlier idea of the wild man and woman. One son attempts to place a leash around a domesticated dog, which further symbolises a new domesticity to the wild family.[xlviii] Despite its clear reference to Original Sin, it illustrates an idyllic family scene, away from the corrupting influences of ‘civilised life’.[xlix] Fig. 5. After Hans Schäufelein, Klag der wilden Holtzleüt, uber die ugetrewen Welt, verse by Hans Sachs, printed by Hans Guldenmundt, Augsburg, 1560 Coloured woodcut, 20.2 x 24.2cm (sheet), 20.2 x 15.2 cm (borderline) The British Museum, London. This image was later copied with an addition of a poem written by Hans Sachs in 1530. In the poem the wild folk lament against the corruption and evils of society such as the lust for wealth, flesh, and violence. The wild folk in Sachs’ verse have chosen to discard worldly pleasures to live the simple and pure life in nature. The verse ends with the wild folk declaring that they will be happy to return to civilisation once the world ‘see the light’.[l] This verse parallels the wild man with ascetic monks whose wildness is a temporary state and who seek redemption away from civilisation. Wild Man as Saints The tales of saints who found redemption in the wilderness by discarding worldly pleasures, growing hair on their body and then returning to civilization and shedding their hair once more became co-opted with the image of wild men and women during the Renaissance. Many stories of anchorites parallel with others, to the point that they can become indistinguishable.[li] Onuphrius is one of the better-known ascetic saints who lived during the fourth century. Paying penance, he lived in a cave for sixty years, as wild men and women were thought to do. His clothes wore away and he grew a thick coat of hair to protect his body against the elements (fig. 6).[lii] Saint John Chrysostom similarly went into the wilderness to pay penance and vowed to crawl on all fours until he found favour with God.[liii] Ascetic saints were similarly depicted with bare knees as wild men and women were also believed to crawl on all fours like an animal, wearing away the hair. In Leben der Heiligen (1499), where Saint John Chrysostom is depicted as covered in thick hair and crawling on all fours in the forest is described as an ‘abominable animal,’ despite being depicted with a halo around his head.[liv] Ascetic saints were therefore reduced to a beast just as the wild men and women had traditionally been as they are seen as degenerating into an animal who grow hair on their body and ate raw food.[lv] In this way, the figure of the hairy monstrosity was able to find redemption, at least in part, cast as the model of repentance. Fig. 6. Anonymous, Saint Onuphrius, c. 1480-1500, woodcut, 14.6 x 11.4cm, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art. During the German Renaissance, Saint Mary Magdalene, who was regarded for her beauty,[lvi] was frequently represented covered in hair like a wild woman. Her hairy image found wide devotion through the southern Germanic region.[lvii] In a tale originating in the tenth century, Mary was set adrift by non-believers and by divine guidance found her way to the south of France where she preached and converted the locals. She lived in a cave in Saint-Baume, Provence, paying penance for her former sinful life.[lviii] The name Magdalene means manens rea or ‘remaining in guilt’.[lix] She grew hair all over her body in the same way as a wild woman. In her cave she remained silent and when a hermit approached her, she had trouble speaking after being secluded for so long, not unlike the wild man and woman.[lx] Every hour, angels would ascent her to the heavens where she would gain nourishment as she was so remote that there was no food or water.[lxi] Mary’s ascension into the heavens as a hairy wild woman was a theme in German Renaissance prints and is illustrated in a print by Hans Baldung Grien (c.1484-1545) in c.1512 (fig. 7 ).[lxii] Her ascent represents her body’s transcendence from both worldly pleasures and the wilderness. Fig. 7. Hans Baldung Grien, St Mary Magdalen, c.1512, Woodcut, Sheet: 13 × 8.7 cm Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The image and identity of Mary Magdalene during the Renaissance is believed to be conflated with the story of Saint Mary of Egypt who lived in the fifth century. Mary has long been thought to be a prostitute. She travelled to Jerusalem where she became aware of her sins when she could not enter a Church as she was held back by a spiritual ‘force’. She saw the image of the Virgin Mary staring back at her and realised why she could not enter. Mary of Egypt, the antithesis to the Virgin prayed to her for forgiveness and renounced her life of sin.[lxiii] Mary went to live alone in the desert to repent for forty-seven years.[lxiv] The desert was a place to be tested against sins, for punishment, but also for contemplation and redemption.[lxv] Both Mary of Egypt and Mary Magdalene have both similarly been depicted covered by hair that represents their place outside of civilization and discarding worldly possessions. It was also used to provide modesty to discern from their previous occupation of the flesh.[lxvi] As seen in the print by Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Ecstasy of St. Mary of Egypt (1506) (fig. 8) who was thought to levitate in prayer,[lxvii] is similar to the composition of prints of Mary Magdalene being accented by angels. The naked saints signified the return to nature before ‘The Fall’ in the Garden of Eden.[lxviii] Despite this earlier legend, Mary Magdalene was not depicted in art as covered in hair until the mid-fifteenth century but was rather naked with her long hair covering her modesty. The image of the hairy Mary Magdalene was therefore believed to originate in fifteenth-century Germany.[lxix] The detail of the hairy Mary Magdalene was also not included in the popular thirteenth century The Golden Legend by Jacobus de Voragine (c.1230-1298) that combined the tales of Magdalene. Her nudity was implied as the hermit who visited her passed her a garment to wear.[lxx] The hair covering Mary of Egypt was also a later addition to the story and also does not appear in The Golden Legend.[lxxi] She similarly does not seem to appear in art until the fifteenth-sixteenth centuries.[lxxii] The same can be said of other saints who turn into a wild man, at least temporarily such as Saint John Chrysostom.[lxxiii] This suggests ascetic saints who grew hair over their body was a contemporary idea that arose at the same time that the wild man and woman were popular in Renaissance prints. However, as Bartra notes, the idea of the hairy ascetic saint derived from Ancient Egypt when long haired hermits sought solitude in the desert.[lxxiv] Fig. 8. Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Ecstasy of St. Mary of Egypt, 1506 Woodcut, 24.4 × 14.2 cm, The Met, New York, Wild Man in Reformation Propaganda The image of the wild man was also co-opted into the Protestant Reformation in Germany and has been used by both Protestants and Catholics in contradictory ways. The engraving of The Pope as a Wild Man was created by Melchior Lorck (c.1526/7-1583) in 1545. This wild man with characteristic thick body hair with bare knees is a hybrid with long rat-like tail. Perched on top of his head is the three-tiered crown of the pope, but the last tier is a tower of excrement. Beneath his crown are ass ears, which represent folly and dishonesty. The ass’s ears allude to the myth of Apollo who made Midas grow the ears of a donkey to tag him for his dishonesty.[lxxv] On his back appears to be a bat with stretched out wings, which is a symbol for the Devil.[lxxvi] The wild man carries his characteristic wooden club, but this one has three cross branches at the end to represent the papal cross. He holds onto the papal key that is shattered at the end, which is a sign that the temporal powers of the papacy have been broken.[lxxvii] From his mouth pours a stream of toads and reptiles. This appears to reference the beast, the dragon, and the false prophet who release four foul spirits. A version of this image was discovered cast on a canon of Protestant troops captured during the Schmalkaldic War.[lxxviii] Melchior Lorck, The Pope as Wild Man, c. 1545, Etching, 22.9 × 19.4 cm, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Kupferstichkabinett Conclusion In Renaissance Germany, complexity existed in people’s relationship with the wilderness. It both conjured up images of the Garden of Eden before ‘The Fall’ as well as the dangers that may lurk beyond. The wild man and woman were just as complex and represented sinfulness, but also redemption and innocence. As Merry Wiesner-Hanks concludes ‘beast, saint, or hero? the wild man was all three’.[lxxix] A closer look at images of the wild man reveals their complexity. There was not a simple evolution between a demonised creature associated with cannibalism and rape to the holy saint. In the age of the apocalypse, the wild man and woman provide a reminder of Original Sin and the need for repentance at a time of social reform. In this way, the hairy woodland creature is not entirely absolved. Further Reading: Abulafia, David, The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of Columbus, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008 Bartra, Roger, Wild Men in the Looking Glass: The Mythic Origins of European Otherness, trans. Carl T. Berrisford, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1994. Bernheimer, Richard, Wild Men in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952. Colin, Susi, ‘The Wild Man and the Indian in Early 16th Century Book Illustration,’ in Christian F. Feest (eds.), Indians and Europe: An Interdisciplinary Collection, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999, pp. 5-37. Husband, Timothy, The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism, exh. cat., New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980. Kaufmann, Lynn Frier, The Nobel Savage: Satyrs and Satyr Families in Renaissance Art, Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1984. Moseley-Christian, Michelle, ‘From Page to Print: The Transformation of the “Wild Woman” in Early Modern Northern Engravings’, Word & Image: A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry, vol. 27, no. 4, 2012, pp.429-442. Schama, Simon, Landscape and Memory, London: HarperCollins, 1995. Wiesner-Hanks, Merry, The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and their Worlds, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009. [ii] Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory, London: HarperCollins, 1995, p. 97; Timothy Husband, The Wild Man: Medieval Myth and Symbolism, exh. cat., New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1980, p. 12. [i] Bartra, Roger, Wild Men in the Looking Glass: The Mythic Origins of European Otherness, trans. Carl T. Berrisford, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1994, p. 79. [iii] Schama, 1995, pp. 95-6. [iv] Bartra, 1994, p. 9. [v] Richard Bernheimer, Wild Men in the Middle Ages: A Study in Art, Sentiment, and Demonology, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1952, p. 11. [vi] Joyce E. Salisbury, The Beast Within: Animals in the Middle Ages, New York: Routledge, 1994, p. 151; David Abulafia, The Discovery of Mankind: Atlantic Encounters in the Age of Columbus, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2008, pp.16-7. [vii] Susi Colin, ‘The Wild Man and the Indian in Early 16th Century Book Illustration,’ in Christian F. Feest (eds.), Indians and Europe: An Interdisciplinary Collection, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1999, p.8. [viii] Abulafia, 2008, pp.16-7. [ix] Colin, 1999, p.6 [x] Bernheimer, 1952, pp.165, 59. [xi] Colin, 1999, p.8. [xii] Husband, 1980, p. 11. [xiii] Walter L. Strauss (ed.), The Complete Engravings, Etchings and Drypoints of Albrecht Dürer, Courier Dover, 2013, p. 178. [xiv] Bernheimer, 1952, p. 135. [xv] Anne Clark, Beasts and Bawdy, London: Dent, 1975, p. 46 [xvi] Lynn Frier Kaufmann, The Nobel Savage: Satyrs and Satyr Families in Renaissance Art, Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press, 1984, p. 34. [xvii] Salisbury, 1994, p. 152. [xviii] Classen, Albrecht (ed.), Meeting the Foreign in the Middle Ages, New York: Routledge, 2002, p. xx. [xix] Colin, 1999, p. 9. [xx] Danielle Régnier-Bohler, ‘Imagining the Self’, in Georges Duby (ed.), A History of Private Life: vol. II Revelations of the Medieval World, trans. Arthur Goldhammer, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988, p. 368. [xxi] Régnier-Bohler, 1988, p. 369. [xxii] Colin, 1999, p. 9. [xxiii] Colin, 1999, p.6. [xxiv] Husband, 1980, p. 62; Merry Wiesner-Hanks, The Marvelous Hairy Girls: The Gonzales Sisters and their Worlds, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009, p. 42. [xxv] Husband, 1980, p. 64; Bartra, 1994, p. 101; Bernheimer, 1970, p. 37. [xxvi] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 139. [xxvii] Kaufmann, 1984, pp.32-4. [xxviii] Michelle Moseley-Christian, ‘From Page to Print: The Transformation of the “Wild Woman” in Early Modern Northern Engravings’, Word & Image: A Journal of Verbal/Visual Enquiry, vol. 27, no. 4, 2012, p. 431; Tacitus, Cornelius, Agricola and Germany, trans. Anthony Birley, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 46. [xxix] Schama, 1995, p. 96. [xxx] Caspar Hirschi, The Origins of Nationalism: An Alternative History from Ancient Rome to Early Modern Germany, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, p. 169. [xxxi] Colin, 1999, p. 23-4. [xxxii] Lewis W. Spitz, Conrad Celtis: The German Arch-Humanist, Cambridge: Harvard Universtiy Press, 1957, p. 100-101. [xxxiii] Anne Clark, 1975, p. 46. [xxxiv] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 168. [xxxv] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 167. [xxxvi] Gilmore-House in Husband, 1980, p. 168. [xxxvii] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 35. [xxxviii] Bernheimer, 1952, p. 180. [xxxix] Husband, 1980, p. 4. [xl] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 44. [xli] Husband, 1980, p. 187. [xlii] Moseley-Christian, 2012, p. 438. [xliii] George Ferguson, Signs & Symbols in Christian Art, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1959, p. 22. [xliv] Christa Grössinger, Picturing Women in Late Medieval and Renaissance Art, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997, p. 82. [xlv] Husband, 1980, p. 15. [xlvi] Husband, 1980, p. 17. [xlvii] Kaufmann, 1984, pp. 36-7. [xlviii] Schama, 1995, pp. 97-8. [xlix] Colin, 1999, pp. 23-4. [l] Husband, 1980, p. 133. The full translation is found in Appendix B of Husband, 1980, pp. 202-4. [li] Husband, 1980, p. 97. [lii] Husband, 1980, p. 95. [liii] Husband, 1980, p. 102. [liv] Husband, 1980, p. 105. [lv] Bartra, 1994, pp. 83-4. [lvi] Roberta Milliken, Ambiguous Locks: An Iconology of Hair in Medieval Art and Literature, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland and Company, 2012, p. 189. [lvii] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 41. [lviii] Joana Antunes, ‘The Late-Medieval Mary Magdalene: Sacredness, Otherness, and Wildness’, in Peter Loewen and Robin Waugh (eds.), Mary Magdalene in Medieval Culture: Conflicted Roles, New York: Routledge, 2014, p. 117; Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 38; Husband, 1980, p. 100. [lix] Husband, 1980, p. 100. [lx] Antunes, 2014, p. 118. [lxi] Milliken, 2012, p. 189. [lxii] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 38; Husband, 1980, p. 100; Milliken, 2012, p. 189. [lxiii] Michelle Erhardt and Amy Morris, ‘Introduction’ in Michelle Erhardt and Amy Morris (eds.), Mary Magdalene: Iconographic Studies from the Middle Ages to the Baroque, Leiden: Brill, 2012, p. 9; Else E. Friesen, ‘Saints as Helpers in Dying: The Hairy Holy Women Mary Magdalene, Mary of Egypt, and Wilgefortist in the Iconography of the Late Middle Ages,’ in E.E. DuBruck and B.I. Gusick, Death and Dying in the Middle Ages, New York: Peter Lang, 1999, pp. 240, 242; Milliken, 2012, p. 204. [lxiv] Erhardt and Morris, 2012, p. 9; Friesen, 1999, pp. 240, 242. [lxv] Bartra, 1994, pp.47-8. [lxvi] Erhardt and Morris, 2012, p. 9; Friesen, 1999, pp. 240, 242. [lxvii] Milliken, 2012, p. 206. [lxviii] Friesen, 1999, p. 242 [lxix] Husband, 1980, p. 100. [lxx] Jacobus de Voragine, The Golden Legend: Readings on the Saints (c.1260), ed. Eamon Duffy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2012, p. 381. [lxxi] Virginia Burrus, The Sex Lives of Saints: An Erotics of Ancient Hagiography, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011, p. 149. [lxxii] Voragine, 2012, p. 228; Milliken, 2012, p. 205. [lxxiii] Husband, 1980, p. 102. [lxxiv] Bartra, 1994, pp. 74-5. [lxxv] Hélène A. Guerber, The Myths of Greece and Rome, New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2007, p. 57. [lxxvi] Russell, 1986, p. 232. [lxxvii] Robert W. Scribner, For the Sake of Simple Folk: Popular Propaganda for the German Reformation, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981, pp. 135, 80 [lxxviii] Scribner, 1981, pp. 163, 164. [lxxix] Wiesner-Hanks, 2009, p. 35. Share this: Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window) Related Wild Men and Heraldry February 20, 2022 In "wild folk" Representations of Monsters in German Renaissance Prints September 5, 2021 In "cynocephali" Monstrous Women: Hair, Gender, and Sexuality in Early Modern German Prints June 6, 2021 In "Human-Animal Relations"
submitted by Unlikely-Struggle-56 to ChatGPTPromptGenius [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 06:04 HillarysFloppyChode What does it mean to drop “buckets” on a Credit Card?

I was browsing TikTok and found this comment “If you’re making payments, you’re mostly good to go UNLESS you start dropping “buckets” 30-60-90-120-CO” “Like making a $10 token payment on a $11k balance will not save you”.
I have a Discover card with an $8500 balance that keeps creeping up, however I make the minimum payment and usually put atleast $300-650 towards it per month.
Is this dropping buckets? And would what I’m doing put me in bad standing with discovers? I’m by no means maxed out either.
submitted by HillarysFloppyChode to CreditCards [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 06:01 mschvs_one Day 522 Stats -- Deaths are 📈 today!

Alive: 430
Dead: 6,711
Day 522 Change: 1
Day 522 Percent Change: 0.232%
Total Percent Dead: 93.98%
Days Since Last Death: 0
Estimated Bots: ~46*
Pool Value Per Person: ~$166.07**
*Estimated Bots is a rough count determined by all "safe" logins within the first 30 seconds of a new day. This number is far from accurate, as there are surely some humans caught up in it, but for now, it is the best number we can get without having a bigger universe. Eventually, we will have a more accurate method to get this number.
**This number does not account for the credit fees, etc, removed from the total pool amount. At the end of the game the total pool will likely be closer to ~$67k after credit card processing fees are deducted by MSCHF. This number also does not account for your potential local and federal taxes which would be owed on the winnings.
submitted by mschvs_one to MSCHVS [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 05:55 Direct-Caterpillar77 Mysterious reoccurring blood splatter in our bathrooms… is my husband lying to me?

I am not The OOP, OOP is u/Doingokay_
Mysterious reoccurring blood splatter in our bathrooms… is my husband lying to me?
Originally posted to RBI
Original Post Mar 16, 2023
Buckle up, this one is a weird one. Since me (24f) and my husband (26m) have moved into our apartment 8 months ago, I have been finding random blood splattering on the walls, cabinets, and floors around our toilets, and once even our bathroom mirror. They’re usually tiny droplets but sometimes they get smeared on the walls or floor, I assume when they’re fresh/wet.
I know that the first suspect would be menstruation blood, however I have not had a period in 2 years thanks to my birth control.
I first noticed it about 3 or 4 months ago. I’ve asked my husband about it and the first few times he would tell me that he had no clue where it came from or how it got there. But after I would clean it up and new ones would appear, I kept would ask him again. Eventually he told me that sometimes when he blows his nose, his nose bleeds and it could be from that. I partially accepted that answer, however I can’t recall a single time where I’ve blown my nose and missed the tissue so much that my snot sprayed all around me? I also mentioned to him that your nose is not supposed to bleed when you blow it and maybe he should see an ENT to see what’s up but he refuses and says it’s fine.
So the cycle continues. I clean up blood droplets and they reappear around our toilets in a matter of days. When I mention them he gets frustrated and short with me and doesn’t want to talk about it. He has doubled down on the “it’s from blowing my nose” thing but I still can’t imagine how 1) he blows his nose so terribly that it sprays snotty blood in every direction and 2) his nose bleeds every day and he’s not concerned about it?
I recently asked him if his nose has always done that. I previously dated somebody with a “thin nose lining” and they once got a massive nose bleed from me doing the “got your nose” thing so I know it’s possible. But he said no, he “doesn’t think” it’s been like that always and then he pressured me to stop the conversation. Also, I would never find blood in our previous house’s bathrooms and we lived there for 4 years.
I’ll add that we have a regular sex life and I’ve seen basically every inch of him and there’s no sign of any cuts or trauma anywhere.
I’m sick of cleaning up blood and I’m also repulsed by the idea that he doesn’t know how to blow his nose without spraying bloody mucous everywhere. I’m also very concerned for him if he really has new nosebleeds every day, as a friend from high school had this happen and he ignored it and it ended up being cancer in his sinus cavities.
So here I am, asking Reddit, what the heck is going on? Is he lying to me? Is it really his nose? If so, why is he suddenly bleeding every day? Why is he so defensive about it? What is going on?!
Edit to answer some FAQs:
• Yes we have pets but the blood shows up only bathrooms, including the guest en suite where the pets are not allowed ever. Those rooms are closed off. No blood anywhere where the pets are allowed.
• I am in control of finances and there is no money missing ever. Both our direct deposits go into our joint account. He has a credit card but the only checking account he has is our joint one.
• He does have hemorrhoids but so do I (thanks Crohns Disease!) and I’ve never gotten blood anywhere but the toilet
• He gets medical anxiety and this could be why he is defensive bc he should probably see a doctor
• He told me that when he goes to the bathroom at night he doesn’t turn any lights on so that he doesn’t wake me (I’m a light sleeper) and when he blows his nose he doesn’t see the blood since it’s dark. He does have pretty bad allergies.
• He has had no behavioral changes since this started
Also adding a comment I made…
“For those suggesting drugs:
I am not dismissing you. I’m getting shamed for “ignoring” the comments suggesting it’s drugs but I’m still absorbing the possibility that it might be and I need TIME. I also can’t just willy-nilly accuse my husband of doing drugs without hard evidence because if I did and he isn’t doing drugs then that’ll put a huge strain on our relationship. If my husband accused me of shooting up in my spare time without evidence I would be pissed. Again, I’m not ignoring you or dismissing your theories, I’m just taking my time because that’s a shocking thing and I need to process the possibility.
So if he were hiding drugs in our tiny apartment, where should I look? I checked inside the toilets. I pulled apart every drawer. Our ceilings are too high for either of us to reach. If you have experience with addiction or living with someone with addiction, please guide me to finding more evidence.”
Do y'all have a dog that wags their tail a lot? Definitely a chance they have an injury that bleeds when they happily hit their tail all over the room. Or could be any other animal.
OOP replied
So we do have pets including a dog however I find the blood in both our master bathroom as well as our guest en suite bathroom and the pets aren’t allowed in the guest area. We keep them all shut off.
What sort of frequency does this occur? I'd ask to see how he blows his nose, that way you know a) if it's actually from his nose and b) if it is his nose then you'll see how he's getting it everywhere.
OOP replied
I rage clean the blood at least once a week which means it all appears within a week.
Also in the 6 years we have been together, I’ve never seen him blow his nose aside from the one time he had a sinus infection. And it wasn’t bloody, and it didn’t spray everywhere.
Could he be cheating on you?
Don’t mean to be grim…but period sex can in fact cause blood splatter.
OOP replied
Oof but is he only cheating on my with girls on their periods? Bc it’s literally every week they reappear.
Also I really don’t think he is cheating.
Update May 27, 2023
An update some (probably very few) have been waiting for:
We solved the case of the bloody bathroom.
Now, I know that there will inevitably be some users who truly believe that my husband is discreetly hiding a drug problem despite this update and harass me about it, so I will be no longer using this account after it’s posted.
To preface, I received about 10 DM’s that offered to send pictures of what their, or a loved one’s, blood evidence of shooting up or snorting looked like and I was thankful that literally none of it looked like what I was finding. Those photos, the lack of gaps in our finances, no history of unexplainable personality changes, as well as the fact that I cleaned/searched every inch of our 800-square-foot apartment and found nothing suspicious, solidified my conclusion that it wasn’t drugs. I am pleased to announce that my husband… is just gross.
Before I continue, I’d like to thank those who sent me photos and personal anecdotes of their or their loved one’s drug use and I wish you all peace and good health in your lives.
So obviously it’s been a few months since my post. In that time, I was harassed in my DMs with people calling me ignorant, some suggesting that I divorce my husband based on this wild possibly that he might be using hard drugs. Firstly, if my husband had a drug problem, I wouldn’t leave him lol I’d want to help him; I love him and addiction is a disease and he would need support.
But alas, I found myself searching dark corners of cabinets and furniture crevices for secret drug-hiding spots and found nothing. I sat him down for yet another conversation about the blood and he reassured me he was having nighttime nose bleeds and promised that he would turn on the lights from then on to make sure he cleaned it up because I did not deserve the burden of doing so for him. He lived up to his promise and after that conversation I noticed he was turning the light on when he went to blow his nose at night and the blood drops stopped appearing.
Fast forward to two weeks ago, I was on Instagram and came across a reel that was titled “Signs you’re using your nasal spray wrong”. The very first “sign” was new, unrelenting nose bleeds. The metaphorical lightbulb over my head illuminated, as I remembered that since we moved to a new part of the state, my husband’s allergies have been worse and he started taking flonaise to control it. The time of the blood appearing was about a week and a half after he started taking the nasal spray. I know this because he uses my prescription ever since flonaise came out with a pill version that I like better.
As soon as he came home I showed him the video I saw, which also demonstrated how to properly use nasal sprays (YOU HAVE TO TILT IT!!! NOT shoot it straight up!!!). He took a week off of the flonaise to “reset” his sinuses and last week started using it again, the correct way. And holy cow. He stopped snoring. His voice sounds different. His nose stopped whistling. And thank the lord, he stopped having midnight nose bleeds.
No more blood, but also no more paranoia on my part and he can properly breathe out of his nose for the first time we moved here.
You may be wondering why he didn’t see a doctor when the nosebleeds started, its because we are poor and he has medical anxiety.
But yeah. Case solved!
TLDR: husband wasn’t using hard drugs as the internet suggested, he was using his nasal spray incorrectly.
submitted by Direct-Caterpillar77 to BestofRedditorUpdates [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 05:43 dyshx Citi Rewards Visa Application!

Citi Rewards Visa Application!
Question: I applied for Citi Rewards Visa card last June 1 through Facebook Ad, then I passed all the required documents. June 2, I got a call from Citi Bank to confirm all of my details (name, address,phone,email) then ask me to submit a Passport ID with sign. Which I did. And today I received an email from Unionbank about their updated Terms and Conditions even though I don't have an account with them (credit or debit). Does this mean I'm approved? Hehe
submitted by dyshx to PHCreditCards [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 05:39 IAmBenefactor How does a Two Player Business Credit card work? Or does it?

Can my wife apply for a business credit card for my business? Sole prop, online sales, over 10 years.
We’re getting into the two player game, but I’ve not tried business cards with her yet.
We file jointly. Not an LLC.
submitted by IAmBenefactor to CreditCards [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 05:27 RedditUserData Do privacy cards count as debit cards for auto pay?

I'm looking at using virtual cards from to use for autopay for T-Mobile. But I can't figure out if they count as credit or debit cards. They say they make money off transaction fees and credit cards have higher transaction fees so I would assume they would go that route but does anyone know?
submitted by RedditUserData to tmobile [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 05:24 SammieBoy17 Thank You!!! Thank You!!! Thank You!!!

To my fellow DD posters, thank you all so much. If not for all of your warnings and posts, I would have just gotten scammed/hacked.
Accepted an order. On my way to the store, I got a call from a number that legit had the DoorDash tag attached to it.
I pulled over and answered. I was informed that the customer placed this order using a stolen credit card. He walked me through the steps of cancelling the order. Then he asked me for my phone number to verify my account.
I told him I did not feel comfortable giving him that, as I’ve heard of too many scams. He immediately hangs up.
I call DD through the app and was informed that it was a scam. Because I did not give any of my personal info, my account was good.
Thanks y’all’s 🌺💜
submitted by SammieBoy17 to doordash_drivers [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 05:18 Spiritual-Ad7999 Venture X - Rental Car Coverage

Question about the Capital One Venture X rental car insurance coverage. I know it’s one of the better coverage from credit cards, but my wife owns the card.
We are booking a longer trip to Europe and most of does rental companies are devils when it comes to insurance and damages. So, want to make sure I’m covered.
Does anyone know if I can book rentals in my name (as the primary renter and driver), but use her credit and still receive all the insurance benefits?
I’m not an authorized user. We do not share same last name but live together and married.
submitted by Spiritual-Ad7999 to CreditCards [link] [comments]

2023.06.03 05:07 Random0981794847 I blocked him..

I can’t seem to feel any emotion except for hurt and anger. I blocked my husband tonight on my phone because I couldn’t take it anymore. Every time I talk to him, it’s just always talking to him about his work and then me being tired. Just once I want some motivation and effort coming from him. I started snapping so easily now because things were supposed to change but he doesn’t learn that even if you move, everything follows you because it’s YOU who needs to change.
Why do I have to always be the happy one or the one excited for planning family time or the only one interested in talking to OUR kids. He claims it’s because he is upset with himself about not being able to provide more for us but he still has been working the same job for years with an even worse schedule after moving to a new state.
Now he accepted to go help his company in another state (to try to make more money by working overtime) while I’m alone working on my degree with 3 kids in an apartment we have to move out of very soon. This very place stresses me out to no end because the walls are thin so I try to keep the kids from well, being kids, every second. He keeps saying things will work out but it took over 7 months to find a place when we moved states and I ended up having to find a place because I couldn’t take it any longer. How do you trust someone who doesn’t know how to take care his family. Since we weren’t on the literal STREET, everything is fine? Thank goodness for credit cards I guess.
I’m going to keep trying, I’m going to keep focusing on myself and the kids. i cant let them suffer. I regret that I let him get away with leaving me by myself again just so he can accomplish NOTHING. No raise no new position, nothing! I regret that after I finished my training to be in the health field, I didn’t immediately try to work. Always working around his schedule because he can’t change anything. No family near, no help. His own family asks ME when we will visit.. now I just tell them, I don’t know. Maybe ask him!
I’m just mad at myself for putting up with this for years. Sorry for the text dump. Needed to get this off of me. I’m just so upset. I don’t count the years we have been married anymore. I really want to see if he does anything if I stop talking to him the whole summer. Maybe he will also stop trying to reach me… sounds like the very thing he would do. Sounds like a boyfriend.. not a marriage of like 13 years.
Enjoy your paid for new hotel room, away from family responsibilities. Enjoy the beer in the fridge, enjoy coworker shitty talks about disgusting stuff. Enjoy the large tv with no interruptions. Enjoy not having to think about anything while you take your 2nd nap 👏👏 Tired from waking up early, but not working yet. Amazing 👏👏 👏
P.S.. has anyone blocked their husband? I actually think it will help me to stop putting in all the effort of thinking of ways to help our situation.
submitted by Random0981794847 to breakingmom [link] [comments]