Jeep cherokee burning oil

[US][SELL][PERFUME][Black Baccara, Nocturne Alchemy, Nui Cobalt, and more!]

2023.06.04 19:24 lithiumjuliet [US][SELL][PERFUME][Black Baccara, Nocturne Alchemy, Nui Cobalt, and more!]

Feel free to make reasonable offers!
Mostly looking to sell, but open to swaps from my Wishlist tab in my sale doc here Shipping is $5. PayPal G&S. Can provide pictures, please ask!
Full sized on spreadsheet:
Alpha Musk Resting Bitch Face 5ml 10 Started with my first amber incense blend which was based on sharp bright amber accord and clean cathedral-esque musk, then I added some middle eastern spices and some of this mentholated floral accord.
Area of Effect Camper 5ml 8 milk chocolate, graham cracker, dark chocolate, marshmallow, campfire, patchouli
Area of Effect N00B 5ml 8 pumpkin, nag champa, pumpkin spice, french vanilla
Black Baccara The Ancient Ones 5ml 20 Aroma palette is earthy and resinous intermingled with incense and a touch of vintage violet floral. Highlights include graveyard dirt, dragon's blood resin, frankincense, Haitian vetiver, hinoki wood, and violet incense
Black Baccara Foliage Fire 5ml 20 Aroma palette is smoky and earthy with hints of gourmand. Highlights include burning leaves, smouldering branches, autumn evening air, and hints of pumpkin pie.
Black Baccara Undead 5ml 20 Aroma palette is resinous, woodsy, and darkly floral. Highlights include grey amber musk, deep woods, burning embers, church incense, smoky myrrh, and lilies.
For Strange Women 1993 - Perfume for the 08.26.22 New Moon 5ml 35 amber, patchouli, teakwood, cola, matches
Nocturne Alchemy Dia de Los Muertos: Viento 5ml 25 Caledonian Sandalwood, Amber accord, Musk, Crystalline absolute, Vanilla Bean essence, Madagascar Vanilla essence and the perfume of Horchata; a drink made from ground up rice along with sweet cinnamon sugar infused with almond milk and blended into Studio Limited Vanilla, Crystal. Horchata - (light spices of clove, nutmeg, allspice and cinnamon)
Nocturne Alchemy Arabian Lily Santalum 5ml 20 Rare Arabian Lily, Santalum Sweet, Santalum and Arabian Santalum Light
Nocturne Alchemy Halloween 2023 6ml 30 Special Edition Bottle Halloween 2023 – French Pumpkin Bread, Pumpkin Ice Cream with Spices of Cardamom/Cinnamon/Nutmeg/Clove/Ginger along with Raw Pumpkin accord, Black Patchouli, Black Tonka Bean, Bastet’s Ice Cream absolute, Vanilla and Sandalwood
Nocturne Alchemy Howling at the Moon 5ml 25 Moonstone Vanilla absolute, Leather and Suede accord (vegan), Amber essence, Rock Rose, Labdanum, Sandalwood, Benzoin, Patchouli and a drop of Vetiver
Nocturne Alchemy Vanilla Pumpkin Pie 5ml 25 Decadent Crystalline/Kobalt/Crystal Vanilla's infused with Bastet's Vanilla Ice Cream and sweet creamy pumpkin. Spiced for the season: White Cinnamon, Black Clove, Australian Ginger and Indian Nutmeg.
Nocturne Alchemy Wicked Cupcake 5ml 25 Vanilla Cake dusted with Cardamom, dipped in Red Rooibos Chai Tea (Red Bush Tea, Black pekoe, cinnamon, ginger, star anise, clove and Silver Needle), Vanilla Custard accord, Black Cardamom, Nag Champa Incense accord, Smoked Musk and Vanilla Cupcake accord
Nui Cobalt Ain't I A Woman 5ml 15 The fragrance inspired by her is one of indomitable hope and faith: a sacred incense of amber and sandalwood, Bartlett pears poached with vanilla bean, and a scattering of dry tea and patchouli leaves
Nui Cobalt Blossom Bat 5ml 15 Humid rainforest blossoms laden with nectar, dense moss, passionfruit, black fig, and bamboo.
Nui Cobalt Canoodling in a Leaf Pile 5ml 15 Warm chai, vermilion musk, copal resin, the subtle hint of a campfire still clinging to soft sweaters tumbled among leaves of aspen and oak.
Nui Cobalt Coimetrophilia 5ml 15 Freshly turned soil, gentle rain, moss-covered tombstones, low-lying fog, old red oaks, and fading funeral lilies
Nui Cobalt Hex Breaker 5ml 15 Banish bad luck, malefaction, and ill will with this powerful purification oil. Fresh lemon, angelica root, eucalyptus, dill, and sage are brightened by blackberry and grounded in dark patchouli, pipe tobacco, and vetiver
Nui Cobalt Indie Mood: Liv 5ml 15 The fecundity of the untamed forest at twilight. Earthy patchouli, deep incense, wild blackcurrants, and the lingering smoke of a maplewood fire
Nui Cobalt Nyctophilia 5ml 15 Ceylon tea, languid patchouli, molasses and myrrh, deep Peru balsam, Turkish figs, blackberries, currants, and cashmere.
Nui Cobalt Selenophilia 5ml 15 Night-blooming jasmine, dewy gardenia, Mysore sandalwood, white amber, pearlescent musk, silver sage and a touch of frozen clove.
Nui Cobalt Tribute to Marie Curie 5ml, below TOL 13 The fragrance inspired by her is a refined synthesis of bracing pine, fresh petitgrain, mountain springwater, verdant mosses, coriander, and tonka.
Nui Cobalt Vila 5ml 15 Apricots preserved with cardamom, clove, and brown sugar, dewy Bulgarian roses, and luminous white silk.
Nui Cobalt Winds & Wolves A'Howling 5ml 15 Snow-laden spruce, bayberry bark, woodland musk, iced cypress, and green cardamom
Poesie We Fly with Our Spirit 5ml 15 free pancakes and syrup for breakfast, broom straw/hay in the sunshine, sassy black cat fur, stormy night airain, a tiny bit of clean cotton sheets in a cozy attic room... and absolutely no herring pie.
Nui Cobalt Wool Over Your Eyes 5ml 15 A delicate blend of fluffy jasmine rice, precious saffron, vanilla-infused sugar, almond milk, nutmeg, cardamom, and a scant sprinkle of cinnamon.
Poesie Cardamom Condensed Milk Rice Pudding 5ml 20 Cardamom Condensed Milk Rice Pudding
Poesie We Fly with Our Spirit 5ml 15 free pancakes and syrup for breakfast, broom straw/hay in the sunshine, sassy black cat fur, stormy night airain, a tiny bit of clean cotton sheets in a cozy attic room... and absolutely no herring pie. (a fan-sourced favorite)
Poesie Yet to be Written 5ml 15 a warm cup of cinnamon chestnut black tea, stacks of books, white oud, ink stained fingers, a wisp of black amber
Siren Song Elixirs Jack-O-Lantern 5ml 15 White pumpkin, Amber, Incense, Maple leaves, Redwood, Saffron, Candle Smoke
Sixteen92 It Hurts to Look at You 6ml 13 Summer bonfire, petrichor, night sky, lonely manicured lawns, oil puddles in parking lots, fresh hair dye, the feel of his shirt against my elbow
Solstice Scents Spirit Tree 5ml 15 A haunting medley of low-country white florals paired with the smoothest sun-warmed woods accord and a bold dose of vanilla. Spirit Tree focuses primarily on gardenia, jasmine and vanilla with very subtle supporting floral notes of orange blossom and magnolia. The main detectable flowers are gardenia and jasmine
submitted by lithiumjuliet to IndieExchange [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 19:22 usernametaken_frick Is jeep cherokee and grand cherokee interchangeable?

I'm trying to switch my 99 cherokee 2wd into a 4wd but I'm struggling finding parts so I wondered if the parts I need are similar enough with the grand cherokee. Thanks in advance.
submitted by usernametaken_frick to Jeep [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 19:08 TheImmersiveEngineer The Blood of the Earth Fuels the Factory

The Blood of the Earth Fuels the Factory submitted by TheImmersiveEngineer to feedthememes [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 19:01 NotInterested33143 Turn signals and a/c work intermittently

I have a 1997 Jeep Cherokee and recently it's been having a strange issue. There's no check engine light on and the hazard lights, brake lights, headlights always work. however, sometimes the airbag light will come on and when that happens my turn signals and a/c unit do not work. Then after awhile, the airbag light goes off and everything works again.
submitted by NotInterested33143 to MechanicAdvice [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 18:32 Feeling_Ad7517 Still no start

Still no start
Still fighting this battle. 1998 Jeep Cherokee 4.0 HO. I’ve got codes for the IAT, ECT, TPS, CPS and transmission computer. The theme I’m seeing is all these sensors are all in the same wiring harness (the one that runs across the fuel rail) so I’m wondering if there could be a short in the harness? I replaced the crankshaft sensor, I have meticulously cleaned every ground, upgraded the firewall strap, added a battery to body ground that i apparently didn’t have, I’m so lost on what’s causing this crank no start. I don’t know if it’s relevant but there’s oil all over the big plug ins on the passenger side of engine bay
submitted by Feeling_Ad7517 to CherokeeXJ [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 17:29 DonkeyTeethBSU Motorhead #15 Live Resin / 7% terps

Motorhead #15 Live Resin / 7% terps
Definitely a sativa leaning hybrid imo. I do bookkeeping at night usually and I was melting away a backlog of stuff last night after a few hits. It's definitely a bit racey though personally pinene usually gets my adhd a little overdrive but I've learned to kinda harness the energy productively.
Taste is pure pine forest. really can't taste much else.
Cons :
I've only had it a day and I feel like the oil burns fast not sure if I need to use a different battery.
Overall. Solid for 37$ 1G. If you like energy it's a good one imo. 👍
submitted by DonkeyTeethBSU to FLMedicalTrees [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 17:14 facetime010101 Aveeno Baby Calming Comfort Moisturizing Lotion with Relaxing Lavender & Vanilla Scents

Aveeno Baby Calming Comfort Moisturizing Lotion with Relaxing Lavender & Vanilla Scents
Caution: It's important to remember that these evaluations are guides to potential health concerns and not definitive measures of a product's safety or efficacy. They are based on individual ingredients rather than any negative effects the final product may have. The way ingredients interact in a formulation can influence their potential impact, and the presence of a specific ingredient does not automatically equate to harm when used in a product. It's always crucial to do your own research, consider the product as a whole, and keep in mind that personal reactions can vary greatly. When making decisions about personal care products, it is recommended to consult with healthcare professionals.

Brief: This baby lotion contains Dimethicone, a type of silicone that creates a protective barrier on the skin, helping to keep it hydrated. However, it's also formulated with Benzyl Alcohol and Fragrance, which may cause irritation or allergic reactions in sensitive babies. The inclusion of Petrolatum, a petroleum derivative, might be of concern to some parents due to potential impurities. Avena Sativa (Oat) Kernel Flour is generally soothing, but could pose an issue for babies with gluten intolerance or sensitivity. Sodium Chloride (salt) in the formula could lead to dryness with overuse. As always, it's advisable to perform a patch test to rule out any potential adverse reactions.

Ingredients: Dimethicone, Water, glycerin, distearyldimonium chloride, petrolatum, isopropyl palmitate, cetyl alcohol, avena sativa (oat) kernel flour, benzyl alcohol, fragrance, sodium chloride.

Typical ingredients description and side effects

  • Dimethicone
    • Dimethicone is a type of silicone used in many skin and hair care products, including baby lotion, due to its smoothing properties and ability to form a barrier on the skin, which can help keep it hydrated.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Skin Irritation: Some people may experience skin irritation from products containing dimethicone, especially if they have sensitive skin. This can include symptoms like redness, itching, or a rash.
      • Allergic Reactions: Allergic reactions to dimethicone are rare, but they can occur. Symptoms of an allergic reaction can include hives, swelling, itching, or difficulty breathing.
      • Acne and Skin Congestion: While dimethicone is non-comedogenic (meaning it shouldn't clog pores), some people find that it can contribute to skin congestion or acne, possibly due to the barrier it forms on the skin, which may trap dirt or oil. This is more likely to be a concern for individuals with acne-prone skin and less of a concern for infants.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 4

  • Distearyldimonium Chloride
    • Distearyldimonium Chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt that's often used in personal care products such as lotions, creams, and hair conditioners because of its anti-static and conditioning properties. It helps to soften and soothe the skin and to reduce or prevent static electricity, improving the feel and manageability of hair. Like any ingredient, Distearyldimonium Chloride can potentially cause side effects in some individuals, but it's generally considered safe as used in cosmetics and personal care products.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Skin Irritation: This is the most common potential side effect. While Distearyldimonium Chloride is generally considered safe and non-irritating for most people, individuals with sensitive skin or allergies may experience irritation. Signs of irritation can include redness, itching, burning, or discomfort at the site of application.
      • Eye Irritation: If a product containing Distearyldimonium Chloride comes into contact with the eyes, it could potentially cause irritation.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 4

  • Petrolatum
    • Petrolatum, commonly known as petroleum jelly, is often used in baby care products including lotions due to its excellent moisturizing properties. It forms a barrier on the skin, preventing moisture loss and protecting the skin from external irritants. This makes it particularly beneficial for treating dry or chapped skin.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Skin Irritation: Some babies might experience minor skin irritation from products containing petrolatum. This could present as redness, rash, or a slight stinging sensation.
      • Potential for Breakouts: Petrolatum forms a barrier on the skin that could potentially trap dirt and oils. While breakouts are less common in babies than in teenagers and adults, this could potentially lead to minor skin issues.
      • Potential Contaminants: There has been some concern about impurities present in petrolatum, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which have been linked to health issues. However, the petrolatum used in cosmetics and personal care products is highly refined and must meet strict safety standards.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 4

  • Benzyl Alcohol
    • Benzyl Alcohol is a type of alcohol used as a solvent and preservative in many types of cosmetics and personal care products, including baby lotion. In small amounts, it is generally safe for use in these types of products. However, like any ingredient, it can potentially cause side effects in some individuals.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Skin Irritation: In some individuals, particularly those with sensitive skin or allergies, Benzyl Alcohol may cause skin irritation. Symptoms can include redness, itching, burning, or discomfort at the site of application.
      • Allergic Reactions: While uncommon, some people might have an allergic reaction to Benzyl Alcohol. Symptoms of an allergic reaction can include severe skin redness, hives, swelling, and in severe cases, difficulty breathing.
      • Eye Irritation: If a product containing Benzyl Alcohol comes into contact with the eyes, it can potentially cause eye irritation.
      • Toxicity in High Concentrations: High concentrations of Benzyl Alcohol can be toxic, especially in premature newborns. However, the concentrations used in cosmetics and personal care products are generally low and considered safe.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 4

  • Fragrance
    • Fragrance in baby lotion can provide a pleasant smell and enhance the experience of using the product. However, "fragrance" is a broad term that can refer to any one of thousands of ingredients used to scent personal care products. Because the specific ingredients used in a fragrance are often not listed, it can be difficult to know exactly what's in a product and how it might affect your baby.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Skin Irritation or Allergic Reactions: The most common issue with fragrances is that they can irritate the skin or cause an allergic reaction. This is particularly a concern for individuals with sensitive skin or known allergies. Symptoms can include redness, itching, swelling, or a rash.
      • Respiratory Distress: Some people may experience respiratory issues such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, or coughing when exposed to certain fragrances, particularly if they have asthma or other respiratory conditions.
      • Headaches or Dizziness: Some people may be sensitive to strong smells and can experience headaches or dizziness due to fragrances.
      • Contact Dermatitis: This is a red, itchy rash caused by direct contact with a substance or an allergic reaction to it.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 8

The grading system used by EWG in the Skin Deep database is as follows:
1 to 2: Low hazard
3 to 6: Moderate hazard
7 to 10: High hazard
submitted by facetime010101 to ChoosyParents [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 16:57 SoftDot4581 Alternative to using oil to stir fry

In Chinese cooking most veggies are stir fried, adding oil to the pan/wok first. Sunflowe canola oil is used, followed by a bit of soya sauce at the end.
When making multiple veg side dishes, it concerns me that one can end up consuming quite a bit of oil in one meal.
Is there an alternative to add to the pan so that less oil can be used? (Using too little obviously causes veg to stick/burn). Or a healthier option to canola or sunflower oil that can be recommended?
Edit: Can’t just use water because most dishes require ginger and garlic to be added first. Water also doesn’t help things from not sticking to the pan. Also, recipes are for stir fried veg not steamed veg.
submitted by SoftDot4581 to EatCheapAndHealthy [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 16:52 SkinnyErgosFatCock Issues moving from reverse to drive

Very recently, my Jeep (1998 grand Cherokee, automatic transmission) has been having issues moving from reverse to drive. The jeep itself will shift through gears but the entire frame will shake and something clicks as if it were spinning.
It's difficult to describe, but it feels as if something isn't fully clicking when I put the car into drive. Does anyone have any ideas?
-recently replaced the transmission fluid, levels are fine.
Edit: My gut tells me something isn't engaging when I go into drive that's related to the frame or steering
submitted by SkinnyErgosFatCock to Jeep [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 16:48 facetime010101 Gerber Good Start Baby Formula Powder

Gerber Good Start Baby Formula Powder
Caution: It's important to remember that these evaluations are guides to potential health concerns and not definitive measures of a product's safety or efficacy. They are based on individual ingredients rather than any negative effects the final product may have. The way ingredients interact in a formulation can influence their potential impact, and the presence of a specific ingredient does not automatically equate to harm when used in a product. It's always crucial to do your own research, consider the product as a whole, and keep in mind that personal reactions can vary greatly. When making decisions about personal care products, it is recommended to consult with healthcare professionals.

Brief: This baby formula appears well-rounded with a comprehensive blend of macronutrients, micronutrients, and beneficial additives such as 2'-O-Fucosyllactose, a human milk oligosaccharide, for gut health. However, the first ingredient, lactose, might not be suitable for babies with lactose intolerance. The formula also contains palm olein oil, which in some infants can cause harder stools and reduce calcium absorption. Moreover, Vitamin A Acetate is included - while essential, excessive consumption could lead to vitamin A toxicity, although this is unlikely given strict regulatory guidelines for infant formula. Lastly, soy is present, which could be a concern for babies with a soy allergy. It's always advisable to consult with a healthcare provider when choosing an infant formula to ensure it meets the child's specific needs.

Ingredients: Lactose, Vegetable Oils (Palm Olein, Soy, Coconut, High-Oleic Safflower Or High-Oleic Sunflower), Whey Protein Concentrate (Reduced In Minerals), Nonfat Dry Milk, And Less Than 2% Of: Soy Lecithin, Calcium Citrate, Potassium Citrate, Corn Maltodextrin, Potassium Chloride, 2'-O-Fucosyllactose, C. Cohnii Oil, M. Alpinaoil, Calcium Phosphate, Choline Bitartrate, Sodium Ascorbate, Sodium Chloride, Taurine, Magnesium Chloride, Potassium Hydroxide, Nucleotides (Cytidine 5'-Monophosphate, Disodium Uridine 5'-Monophosphate, Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate, Disodium Guanosine 5'-Monophosphate), Inositol, Ferrous Sulfate, Alpha-Tocopheryl Acetate, Mixed Tocopherols, Ascorbyl Palmitate, L-Histidine, Zinc Sulfate, Niacinamide, Calcium Pantothenate, B. Lactis Cultures, L-Carnitine, Copper Sulfate, Vitamin A Acetate, Riboflavin, Thiamine Mononitrate, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride, Manganese Sulfate, Citric Acid, Potassium Iodide, Folic Acid, Phylloquinone, Biotin, Sodium Selenate, Vitamin D3, Vitamin B12

Typical ingredients description and side effects

  • Soy Lecithin
    • Soy lecithin is a common ingredient found in various food products, including baby formulas. It is derived from soybean oil and is used as an emulsifier, helping to blend and stabilize the ingredients in the formula. Soy lecithin is generally considered safe for consumption, but like any food ingredient, it can have potential side effects or considerations.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Allergies or Sensitivities: Soy is one of the top food allergens, and some individuals may have allergies or sensitivities to soy products, including soy lecithin. Allergic reactions can vary in severity and may include symptoms such as hives, swelling, difficulty breathing, or digestive issues. If your baby has a known soy allergy or shows signs of an allergic reaction after consuming a baby formula containing soy lecithin, it is important to discontinue use and consult a healthcare professional.
      • Digestive Sensitivities: Some individuals, including babies, may have digestive sensitivities to soy-based products. This can manifest as symptoms like gas, bloating, colic, or diarrhea. If your baby experiences any of these symptoms after consuming a baby formula containing soy lecithin, you may consider discussing alternative formulas with your pediatrician.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 4

  • Potassium Hydroxide
    • Potassium Hydroxide is commonly used in the food industry as a pH regulator or a food stabilizer. It helps to maintain the acidity or alkalinity of food, which is important for flavor, preservation, and food safety. In baby formula, Potassium Hydroxide is used to adjust the pH to make it as close to human milk as possible, to ensure optimal digestion and nutrient absorption.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Irritation: Potassium hydroxide is known to be caustic, meaning it can cause irritation or burns if it comes into direct contact with the skin or eyes in its pure form. However, in food products like baby formula, it's used in very diluted quantities that are safe for consumption.
      • Digestive Issues: If consumed in large amounts, potassium hydroxide could potentially cause digestive issues such as nausea or vomiting. However, the small amounts used in food products are unlikely to cause such effects.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 5

  • Ferrous Sulfate
    • Ferrous sulfate is a type of iron supplement that's often added to baby formulas. Iron is an essential nutrient that's necessary for the production of hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. It's also worth noting that some infants may have difficulty absorbing iron from supplements like ferrous sulfate, which can potentially lead to issues such as iron deficiency anemia. However, most infants can absorb and utilize the iron in baby formula without issue.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Gastrointestinal Issues: These can include nausea, constipation, diarrhea, or stomach upset.
      • Iron Toxicity: Though very rare and typically associated with accidental ingestion of iron supplements, iron toxicity can be serious, causing symptoms like dizziness, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing, fever, and in severe cases, can lead to organ damage.
      • Interference with Nutrient Absorption: Excessive iron can interfere with the absorption of other nutrients, such as zinc.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 4

  • Tocopheryl Acetate
    • Tocopheryl Acetate is a form of vitamin E that is often added to baby formula, skincare products, and various other products. Vitamin E is an essential nutrient known for its antioxidant properties. It plays a crucial role in protecting cells from damage, supporting immune function, and promoting healthy skin and eyes. In the context of baby formula, tocopheryl acetate is generally safe and unlikely to cause side effects when consumed at levels that are within the recommended dietary allowances for infants. However, like any nutrient, it could potentially cause side effects if consumed excessively.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Bleeding: Vitamin E has mild anticoagulant properties, meaning it can prevent blood clots. While this is typically a good thing, in large amounts, it could potentially increase the risk of bleeding.
      • Nausea, Diarrhea, Stomach Cramps: Some people may experience digestive upset from consuming too much vitamin E.
      • Rash: Some individuals may have a skin reaction to topical use of tocopheryl acetate, though this is less relevant for its presence in baby formula
    • EWG Skin Grade: 3

  • Zinc Sulfate
    • Zinc sulfate is a mineral that is frequently used in dietary supplements and baby formulas. Zinc is an essential nutrient that supports various body functions, including immune function, protein synthesis, wound healing, DNA synthesis, and cell division. It's particularly important for babies as they grow and develop.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Gastrointestinal Issues: Excessive intake of zinc can cause gastrointestinal issues such as vomiting, diarrhea, and stomach cramps.
      • Zinc Toxicity: While rare, severe overconsumption can lead to zinc toxicity, with symptoms including loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headaches. Long-term excessive intake could potentially interfere with the body's absorption of other essential minerals like copper and iron.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 6

  • Vitamin A Acetate
    • Vitamin A Acetate, also known as retinyl acetate, is a form of vitamin A that's often added to food products, including infant formula, due to its essential role in supporting vision, the immune system, and overall growth and development. It's generally safe for use in such products, but as with any nutrient, too much can lead to adverse effects. It's important to note that these side effects are generally associated with excessive intake over a prolonged period, not normal dietary consumption.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Vitamin A Toxicity (Hypervitaminosis A): This can occur if an infant is given too much Vitamin A over a long period of time. Symptoms can include nausea, dizziness, blurred vision, and even hair loss in severe cases. However, it is extremely rare and typically associated with over-supplementation, not food sources.
      • Birth Defects: Consuming extremely high levels of Vitamin A during pregnancy can potentially lead to birth defects. However, this is not relevant to baby formula but rather a concern for pregnant women.
      • Interactions with other nutrients: High levels of Vitamin A can interfere with the absorption and utilization of other vitamins, such as Vitamin D and Vitamin K.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 9
  • Manganese Sulfate
    • Manganese sulfate is a mineral that's often used in dietary supplements and food products, including baby formula. Manganese is an essential nutrient that supports many body functions, including bone development, metabolism, and brain function. As of my knowledge, manganese sulfate is generally considered safe in the quantities typically found in food and formula, but excessive intake can lead to adverse effects
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Neurological Effects: High levels of manganese exposure have been associated with neurological issues, but this is generally associated with environmental exposure (like inhaling manganese dust), not dietary intake.
      • Interference with Iron Absorption: Manganese can interfere with the absorption of iron. This is generally not a problem with the levels of manganese found in baby formula, but it could potentially be an issue with very high levels of intake.
      • Digestive Issues: As with any mineral, consuming excessive amounts could potentially cause digestive issues like nausea or diarrhea.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 3

  • Phylloquinone
    • Phylloquinone is another name for Vitamin K1, an essential nutrient that plays a critical role in the body's blood clotting process. It's naturally found in foods like leafy green vegetables, and it's often added to infant formulas to ensure babies get an adequate amount of this nutrient. In the amounts typically found in infant formula, Phylloquinone is generally considered safe and side effects are rare. It's important to understand that these side effects are usually associated with very high doses of the vitamin, typically from supplementation, and not from dietary intake like in baby formula.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Allergic Reactions: Some people may be allergic to Phylloquinone. Symptoms can include difficulty breathing, rash, itching, swelling, severe dizziness, or trouble breathing. However, such reactions are extremely rare.
      • Interference with Blood-Thinning Medications: High doses of Vitamin K can interfere with the effectiveness of blood-thinning medications. This is not typically a concern for infants consuming baby formula but may be relevant in certain medical conditions.
      • Hemolytic Anemia or Jaundice in Newborns: Extremely high doses of Vitamin K can cause a condition called hemolytic anemia or jaundice in newborns, especially those with a condition called G6PD deficiency. However, the amount of Vitamin K in infant formula is well below the level that could cause this condition.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 4

  • Sodium Selenate
    • Sodium selenate is a form of selenium, an essential trace mineral necessary for many bodily functions. Selenium is important for DNA synthesis, reproduction, metabolism of thyroid hormones, and protection against oxidative damage and infection, among other things. For infants, selenium is crucial for normal growth and development.
    • Potential Side Effects:
      • Selenosis: Selenium can have adverse effects if consumed in excess. Selenium toxicity can lead to a condition called selenosis, which can cause symptoms such as hair loss, gastrointestinal upset, fatigue, irritability, and nerve damage.
      • Digestive Issues: In large amounts, selenium might cause digestive issues like nausea or diarrhea.
      • Skin Rash: In some cases, overconsumption of selenium can lead to skin rashes.
    • EWG Skin Grade: 8

The grading system used by EWG in the Skin Deep database is as follows:
1 to 2: Low hazard
3 to 6: Moderate hazard
7 to 10: High hazard
submitted by facetime010101 to ChoosyParents [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 16:44 I-am-the-Peel (Spoilers Extended) A Character Analysis of Varys, the fake and lying eunuch

Apologies for the length and lateness of this post, past few months have been quite chaotic and haven't had much access to the internet, I dunno when I'll be back on this sub again after this so until then, more posts from me will be a Dream for Spring Summer (probably)
Over the years I've read a great many theories about the character of Varys, his motivations, his scheming throughout the series and his endgame, but none of them have ever truly sat well with me for how much his character feels simplified. He is one of ASOIAF's most complex characters who I still believe we haven't entirely cracked yet, and I for one still believe even after writing this post up and reflecting on it, there's still some of his character that I haven't figured out.
However, I want to propose an alternative character analysis to the character of Varys, one that drifts away from the more common take on his character - Varys is not a eunuch or a friend of Tyrion Lannister, and has spent his entire life lying about his manhood to deter anyone from thinking that he could father any children, so that fAegon, his true son, would always be protected while hiding.
Let us begin by breaking down each of the lies that define his character.
First, the lie that he was castrated as a young slave and had his manhood thrown into a fire by 'a certain man', which resulted in the fire turning magically blue and 'a voice' speaking out to Varys.
"One day at Myr, a certain man came to our folly. After the performance, he made an offer for me that my master found too tempting to refuse. I was in terror. I feared the man meant to use me as I had heard men used small boys, but in truth the only part of me he had need of was my manhood. He gave me a potion that made me powerless to move or speak, yet did nothing to dull my senses. With a long hooked blade, he sliced me root and stem, chanting all the while. I watched him burn my manly parts on a brazier. The flames turned blue, and I heard a voice answer his call, though I did not understand the words they spoke. "The mummers had sailed by the time he was done with me. Once I had served his purpose, the man had no further interest in me, so he put me out. When I asked him what I should do now, he answered that he supposed I should die. To spite him, I resolved to live. I begged, I stole, and I sold what parts of my body still remained to me. Soon I was as good a thief as any in Myr, and when I was older I learned that often the contents of a man's letters are more valuable than the contents of his purse. "Yet I still dream of that night, my lord. Not of the sorcerer, nor his blade, nor even the way my manhood shriveled as it burned. I dream of the voice. The voice from the flames. Was it a god, a demon, some conjurer's trick? I could not tell you, and I know all the tricks. All I can say for a certainty is that he called it, and it answered, and since that day I have hated magic and all those who practice it. If Lord Stannis is one such, I mean to see him dead." - ACOK - TYRION X
Now there is much from this excerpt to raise complaints and questions about Varys' story;
But the weakest part of all is that Varys says that he "hates magic and all those who practise it", yet he goes to great lengths to protect and look out for Daenerys, and try to join fAegon's forces with hers, despite knowing that she has three magical dragons by her side.
"How many days until we reach the river?" he asked Illyrio that evening. "At this pace, your queen's dragons will be larger than Aegon's three before I can lay eyes upon them." "Would it were so. A large dragon is more fearsome than a small one." The magister shrugged. "Much as it would please me to welcome Queen Daenerys to Volantis, I must rely on you and Griff for that. I can serve her best in Pentos, smoothing the way for her return. So long as I am with you, though … well, an old fat man must have his comforts, yes? Come, drink a cup of wine." - ADWD - TYRION II
Illyrio is Varys' best friend and closest confidant, who he works with to protect Daenerys for much of her life and is willing to crown her as Queen alongside fAegon even though she has magical fire-breathing dragons that Varys, a victim of magical flames, would despise.
Illyrio, the same man who praised R'hllor, a God that Varys despises;
Her brother was waiting in the cool of the entry hall, seated on the edge of the pool, his hand trailing in the water. He rose when she appeared and looked her over critically. "Stand there," he told her. "Turn around. Yes. Good. You look …" "Regal," Magister Illyrio said, stepping through an archway. He moved with surprising delicacy for such a massive man. Beneath loose garments of flame-colored silk, rolls of fat jiggled as he walked. Gemstones glittered on every finger, and his man had oiled his forked yellow beard until it shone like real gold. "May the Lord of Light shower you with blessings on this most fortunate day, Princess Daenerys," the magister said as he took her hand. He bowed his head, showing a thin glimpse of crooked yellow teeth through the gold of his beard. "She is a vision, Your Grace, a vision," he told her brother. "Drogo will be enraptured." - AGOT - DAENERYS I
Neither Viserys or Daenerys were followers of R'hllor at this point, or surrounded by any followers, meaning Illyrio didn't need to bring up this form of prayer to R'hllor unless it was genuine or near genuine on his own part.
It makes little sense that Varys would entertain the company of those who worship R'hllor or magical forms of fire, if Varys truly is traumatised by what seemingly happened to him as a slave child by fire.
As well as Illyrio, this is apparent in Aerys II, who would regularly burn people in the throne room with wildfire, in the presence of Varys;
Frustrated, Aerys turned to the Wisdoms of the ancient Guild of Alchemists, who knew the secret of producing the volatile jade green substance known as wildfire, said to be a close cousin to dragonflame. The pyromancers became a regular fixture at his court as the king's fascination with fire grew. By 280 AC, Aerys II had taken to burning traitors, murderers, and plotters, rather than hanging or beheading them. The king seemed to take great pleasure in these fiery executions, which were presided over by Wisdom Rossart, the grand master of the Guild of much so that he granted Rossart the title of Lord and gave him a seat upon the small council. - TWOIAF - THE TARGARYEN KINGS - AERYS II
Not only would Varys be present to witness these burnings, but Varys even encouraged Aerys to burn other individuals suspected of treachery, and fuelled both Aerys' paranoia and bloodlust;
He floated in heat, in memory. "After dancing griffins lost the Battle of the Bells, Aerys exiled him." Why am I telling this absurd ugly child? "He had finally realized that Robert was no mere outlaw lord to be crushed at whim, but the greatest threat House Targaryen had faced since Daemon Blackfyre. The king reminded Lewyn Martell gracelessly that he held Elia and sent him to take command of the ten thousand Dornishmen coming up the kingsroad. Jon Darry and Barristan Selmy rode to Stoney Sept to rally what they could of griffins' men, and Prince Rhaegar returned from the south and persuaded his father to swallow his pride and summon my father. But no raven returned from Casterly Rock, and that made the king even more afraid. He saw traitors everywhere, and Varys was always there to point out any he might have missed. So His Grace commanded his alchemists to place caches of wildfire all over King's Landing. Beneath Baelor's Sept and the hovels of Flea Bottom, under stables and storehouses, at all seven gates, even in the cellars of the Red Keep itself. - ASOS - JAIME V
Varys developed a reputation for egging on Aerys' paranoia and encouraging him to execute apparent traitors by fire, so much so that people like Barristan lay chief blame for Aerys' downfall into madness on Varys for exploiting it;
"It is not a question of wanting. The throne is mine, as Robert's heir. That is law. After me, it must pass to my daughter, unless Selyse should finally give me a son." He ran three fingers lightly down the table, over the layers of smooth hard varnish, dark with age. "I am king. Wants do not enter into it. I have a duty to my daughter. To the realm. Even to Robert. He loved me but little, I know, yet he was my brother. The Lannister woman gave him horns and made a motley fool of him. She may have murdered him as well, as she murdered Jon Arryn and Ned Stark. For such crimes there must be justice. Starting with Cersei and her abominations. But only starting. I mean to scour that court clean. As Robert should have done, after the Trident. Ser Barristan once told me that the rot in King Aerys's reign began with Varys. The eunuch should never have been pardoned. No more than the Kingslayer. At the least, Robert should have stripped the white cloak from Jaime and sent him to the Wall, as Lord Stark urged. He listened to Jon Arryn instead. I was still at Storm's End, under siege and unconsulted." He turned abruptly, to give Davos a hard shrewd look. "The truth, now. Why did you wish to murder Lady Melisandre?" - ASOS - DAVOS IV
It makes very little sense that Varys, a eunuch who seemingly hates worshippers of R'hllor and pyromancers for burning people and sacrificing his manhood to the flames as a child, would be best friends with a man who praises R'hllor or encourage his previous King to burn several people, many of whom were likely innocent of the claims of treachery put against them.
But it makes a lot more sense that Varys actually never had a problem with R'hllor or wildfire, and instead chose to encourage Aerys' paranoia so that he would always both seem useful to Aerys and be on good relations with him, to solidify his position of power on the Small Council, given that he was just a young foreign man in Westeros and wholly dependent on Aerys' support to maintain his standing in King's Landing.
The second lie of Varys' character that I wish to tackle is his apparent concern for the wellbeing of children;
"No," Ned pleaded, his voice cracking. "Varys, gods have mercy, do as you like with me, but leave my daughter out of your schemes. Sansa's no more than a child." "Rhaenys was a child too. Prince Rhaegar's daughter. A precious little thing, younger than your girls. She had a small black kitten she called Balerion, did you know? I always wondered what happened to him. Rhaenys liked to pretend he was the true Balerion, the Black Dread of old, but I imagine the Lannisters taught her the difference between a kitten and a dragon quick enough, the day they broke down her door." Varys gave a long weary sigh, the sigh of a man who carried all the sadness of the world in a sack upon his shoulders. "The High Septon once told me that as we sin, so do we suffer. If that's true, Lord Eddard, tell me … why is it always the innocents who suffer most, when you high lords play your game of thrones? Ponder it, if you would, while you wait upon the queen. And spare a thought for this as well: The next visitor who calls on you could bring you bread and cheese and the milk of the poppy for your pain … or he could bring you Sansa's head. - AGOT - EDDARD XV
Varys shows apparent disgust at the murders of Rhaegar's children, Rhaenys and Aegon, at the end of Robert's Rebellion, and the way in which they were brutally murdered.
However, we later learn in the series that Aegon seemingly survived and was swapped with a tanner's child, bought by Varys and swapped with Aegon, so that this bought child could be sacrificed to the Lannisters, who Varys presumed would want to kill Rhaegar's children;
"A true friend, our Lord Connington. He must be, to remain so fiercely loyal to the grandson of the king who took his lands and titles and sent him into exile. A pity about that. Elsewise Prince Rhaegar's friend might have been on hand when my father sacked King's Landing, to save Prince Rhaegar's precious little son from getting his royal brains dashed out against a wall." The lad flushed. "That was not me. I told you. That was some tanner's son from Pisswater Bend whose mother died birthing him. His father sold him to Lord Varys for a jug of Arbor gold. He had other sons but had never tasted Arbor gold. Varys gave the Pisswater boy to my lady mother and carried me away." "Aye." Tyrion moved his elephants. "And when the pisswater prince was safely dead, the eunuch smuggled you across the narrow sea to his fat friend the cheesemonger, who hid you on a poleboat and found an exile lord willing to call himself your father. It does make for a splendid story, and the singers will make much of your escape once you take the Iron Throne … assuming that our fair Daenerys takes you for her consort." - ADWD - TYRION VI
This entire "splendid story" as Tyrion calls it, is full of inconsistencies and unbelievable acts.
The first red flag of this story is the idea that Varys, a former slave child who abhors slavery, would willingly buy another man's young child. Also pay attention to the mention of 'Arbor gold', which has been well documented on this sub for years for how its always a signal of lies, as individuals like Littlefinger mention it in passing whenever they are telling a lie.
The second red flag is the idea that Varys, someone who seemingly abhors the murder and suffering of innocent children, would willingly sacrifice an innocent young child and allow them to be murdered just to spare another, more valuable child. The idea that Varys would also take Elia's child away from her, either willingly or unwillingly on her part, is also questionable.
The third red flag is why Varys chose only to switch Aegon with another child, and not do the same for Rhaenys. Having two imposter Targaryen children raised to believe they are Targaryens could've helped to support their claims, build them up as a rival power in Westeros and also provide a backup option for Varys incase fAegon didn't survive his childhood.
The final red flag is the idea that Varys was able to foresee how the Rebellion was going to end, accurately guessed that Rhaegar's children would be murdered by the Lannisters, knew where and when to find Elia and her children, be able to remove one of her children away from her without anyone knowing, and knew that one of Tywin's men would kill the children so brutally that next to no one would be able to recognise them - the idea story is built on a series of flimsy conveniences and incredible predictive abilities on Varys' part.
If Varys truly cared so much about the protection and well-being of children, he would not have willingly bought and sacrificed an innocent child to be sacrificed in exchange for Aegon's survival, nor would he have abandoned Rhaenys to her fate if he could have prevented it. This means either Varys truly doesn't give a damn about the wellbeing of children and just lies to the likes of Ned and Tyrion about it, or that the entire story about Aegon being swapped with a tanner's child is a lie like some fans believe, or that both stories are lies muddled together to make it more difficult to discern the truth.
Perhaps the truth of Varys' lies is best exposed in this often cited excerpt from ACOK, a conversation between him and Tyrion about the infamous "Shadow on the Wall" riddle;
Varys smiled. "Here, then. Power resides where men believe it resides. No more and no less.""So power is a mummer's trick?" "A shadow on the wall," Varys murmured, "yet shadows can kill. And ofttimes a very small man can cast a very large shadow." Tyrion smiled. "Lord Varys, I am growing strangely fond of you. I may kill you yet, but I think I'd feel sad about it." - ACOK - TYRION II
The question of who Varys refers to in this conversation has been debated for years on this sub. Some believe that Varys was alluding to fAegon, that if people believe he is the real Aegon then he will have power, even if he doesn't truly have power as a common non-Targaryen child. Others have suggested Varys was alluding to Littlefinger, who was once a young small man who rose very high in King's Landing and cast a large shadow over the realm by starting the WotFk through his schemes.
I however believe that Varys is talking about himself.
Varys was once a very small man when he came to King's Landing at Aerys' calling for him to join the Small Council. He was seen as a young ex-slave, without a lordship or house of his own, weak and powerless. But overtime, through his manipulation of Aerys, encouraging his paranoia and own self-inflicted downfall, Varys cast a very large shadow over the empire of House Targaryen in Westeros, and destroyed it forever. What Varys says here to Tyrion is a very veiled threat that he can be dangerous to Tyrion if he underestimates Varys.
Tyrion however, in his arrogance, believes that Varys is referring to him, being a "very small man" and begins considering him a friend.
This is the third and final lie of Varys' character that I wish to dissect here - the lie that he is a friend or useful ally of sorts to Tyrion.
The idea of Varys betraying Tyrion's trust and working against him is first presented to us by Cersei, when she lets slip that Varys informed her of Tyrion's plan to send the Hound into battle at the Battle of the Blackwater;
"Varys says so." The swan was too rich for his taste. A line appeared on Cersei's pale white brow, between those lovely eyes. "You put too much trust in that eunuch." "He serves me well." "Or so he'd have you believe. You think you're the only one he whispers secrets to? He gives each of us just enough to convince us that we'd be helpless without him. He played the same game with me, when I first wed Robert. For years, I was convinced I had no truer friend at court, but now . . ." She studied his face for a moment. "He says you mean to take the Hound from Joffrey." - ACOK - TYRION XII
On a first read, we are quick to dismiss Cersei's claims for how much she is built up as an antagonistic and untrustworthy character, but in later understanding her motives in her own POV chapters, we realise there may be an inkling of truth in her claims. In the case of the Hound, Varys has no reason to inform her of Tyrion's plan, however innocent and insignificant in the grand game of thrones they may be, other than to maintain some level of trust with her and to invoke conflict between the Lannister siblings, which benefits Varys.
There are frequent moments throughout the series in which Varys alludes to knowing key information and deliberately withholding it from Tyrion even if it may benefit Tyrion, including who ordered Mandon Moore to kill Tyrion;
Bronn had turned up all he could on Ser Mandon, but no doubt Varys knew a deal more . . . should he choose to share it. "The man seems to have been quite friendless," Tyrion said carefully. "Sadly," said Varys, "oh, sadly. You might find some kin if you turned over enough stones back in the Vale, but here . . . Lord Arryn brought him to King's Landing and Robert gave him his white cloak, but neither loved him much, I fear. Nor was he the sort the smallfolk cheer in tourneys, despite his undoubted prowess. Why, even his brothers of the Kingsguard never warmed to him. Ser Barristan was once heard to say that the man had no friend but his sword and no life but duty . . . but you know, I do not think Selmy meant it altogether as praise. Which is queer when you consider it, is it not? Those are the very qualities we seek in our Kingsguard, it could be said—men who live not for themselves, but for their king. By those lights, our brave Ser Mandon was the perfect white knight. And he died as a knight of the Kingsguard ought, with sword in hand, defending one of the king's own blood." The eunuch gave him a slimy smile and watched him sharply. Trying to murder one of the king's own blood, you mean. Tyrion wondered if Varys knew rather more than he was saying. - ASOS - TYRION II
When Tyrion presses Varys for information about Mandon, Varys deliberately skims over Mandon's life and offers vague beliefs about the perfect Kingsguard to try and derail Tyrion's line of questioning, and when Varys pretends not to have known about Mandon trying to kill Tyrion, he watches Tyrion "sharply" to try and gather how much Tyrion himself knows, whether or not Tyrion will seek retribution for it from the anger on his face, and almost openly mocks him for the smile he gives. Tyrion briefly considers the idea that Varys is deliberately holding information back from him, but chooses instead to talk about other matters, which is what Varys wanted.
On the matter of Varys' choosing to support the Lannisters or Stannis, Varys once again tries to confuse Tyrion with riddles and not directly answer the question;
"He accuses my brother and sister of incest. I wonder how he came by that suspicion." "Perhaps he read a book and looked at the color of a bastard's hair, as Ned Stark did, and Jon Arryn before him. Or perhaps someone whispered it in his ear." The eunuch's laugh was not his usual giggle, but deeper and more throaty. "Someone like you, perchance?" "Am I suspected? It was not me." "If it had been, would you admit it?" "No. But why should I betray a secret I have kept so long? It is one thing to deceive a king, and quite another to hide from the cricket in the rushes and the little bird in the chimney. Besides, the bastards were there for all to see." - ACOK - TYRION III
We know for certain that Varys didn't want the WotFK to start so soon or for the truth of Cersei's children to come out in AGOT because he wanted more time for Viserys' forces to grow in strength and come closer to Westeros in order to invade, either to take the throne for themselves or be the ones to kill the beloved Robert Baratheon and paint themselves as villainous usurpers to make fAegon more heroic and not taint him with Robert's blood on his hands.
However, like with Cersei and Tyrion, Varys needs to tell those on the Small Council a certain amount of secretive information in order to gain their trust and support, including Stannis. That Varys even chooses to give a deeper and more unsettling laugh about the matter is another example of him openly laughing about his treachery in Tyrion's face and Tyrion not realising it.
When Tyrion almost stumbles upon this ruse and Varys realises that his laugh was too deep and questionable, Varys tries to brush it off by saying its harder to keep a secret secret if so many people are investigating it, and insists that there were so many of Robert's bastards to find for Stannis to figure out the truth on his own. But again, this last statement from Varys is littered with half-truths.
Varys insists it is hard to keep deceiving King Robert about the truth of his children's true parentage, and even harder to keep deceiving the truth from those who are deliberately looking for the truth and wanting to find it. This in itself is a reference to his believe that Stannis was always power-hungry for the Iron Throne, and was just looking for an excuse to try to claim it for himself as Robert's true heir, regardless of whether or not Cersei's children were Robert's or not.
But his own comment about "betraying a secret I have held for so long" is a direct allusion to fAegon's existence, and his determination not to reveal the truth of his existence to anyone, including Tyrion.
Even when Tyrion rides with Illyrio and Jon Connington's entourage in ADWD, Tyrion is only led to believe that they are going to support Daenerys' claim for the Iron Throne, and has to work out for himself that fAegon is actually Aegon and the one Varys and Illyrio wish to crown;
Young Griff hesitated. "Lannister? Your father—" "—is dead. At my hand. If it please Your Grace to call me Yollo or Hugor, so be it, but know that I was born Tyrion of House Lannister, trueborn son of Tywin and Joanna, both of whom I slew. Men will tell you that I am a kingslayer, a kinslayer, and a liar, and all of that is true … but then, we are a company of liars, are we not? Take your feigned father. Griff, is it?" The dwarf sniggered. "You should thank the gods that Varys the Spider is a part of this plot of yours. Griff would not have fooled the cockless wonder for an instant, no more than it did me. No lord, my lordship says, no knight. And I'm no dwarf. Just saying a thing does not make it true. Who better to raise Prince Rhaegar's infant son than Prince Rhaegar's dear friend Jon Connington, once Lord of Griffin's Roost and Hand of the King?" "Be quiet." Griff's voice was uneasy. - ADWD - TYRION V
After Tyrion works out the truth and manipulates both fAegon and Jon Connington into riding for Westeros instead of joining forces with Daenerys, he disappears and goes off to seek her out.
This likely angers Varys, and is the reason why Varys no longer affectionately calls Tyrion by his name or by '"lord" and instead refers to him as "the imp" in ADWD's epilogue, a term that Varys knows Tyrion hates;
Ser Kevan tried to rise, but the strength had left him. He could not feel his legs. "I thought the crossbow fitting. You shared so much with Lord Tywin, why not that? Your niece will think the Tyrells had you murdered, mayhaps with the connivance of the Imp. The Tyrells will suspect her. Someone somewhere will find a way to blame the Dornishmen. Doubt, division, and mistrust will eat the very ground beneath your boy king, whilst Aegon raises his banner above Storm's End and the lords of the realm gather round him." "Aegon?" For a moment he did not understand. Then he remembered. A babe swaddled in a crimson cloak, the cloth stained with his blood and brains. "Dead. He's dead." - ADWD - EPILOGUE
Varys chooses to frame Tyrion for Kevan's murder, **deliberately and intentionally further putting his life in danger by Cersei's wrath, already knowing that Tyrion has a large bounty on his head because of her, and talks lowly of Tyrion by calling him an "Imp" and referring to his "connivance" in a very scorned tone.
Varys never considered Tyrion a friend or ally in ASOIAF and was just using him, another lie that he tells throughout the series, and by the end of ADWD, he hates Tyrion for his scheming and knowing too much information than Varys wished him to know.
But there is a bigger telling point about how much Varys uses Tyrion, and a more ground-breaking twist in the narrative that reflects both how much Varys underestimates Tyrion and how much Varys never cared for him;
In ASOS, Varys didn't tell Tyrion how to reach the Tower of the Hand to go and kill Tywin. Varys told him this key information so that Tyrion could go and kill Shae instead, who Varys considered a greater threat to him.
Shae is one of the few, perhaps the only, people in ASOIAF to see through Varys' disguises;
A whiff of something rank made him turn his head. Shae stood in the door behind him, dressed in the silvery robe he'd given her. I loved a maid as white as winter, with moonglow in her hair. Behind her stood one of the begging brothers, a portly man in filthy patched robes, his bare feet crusty with dirt, a bowl hung about his neck on a leather thong where a septon would have worn a crystal. The smell of him would have gagged a rat. "Lord Varys has come to see you," Shae announced. The begging brother blinked at her, astonished. Tyrion laughed. "To be sure. How is it you knew him when I did not?" She shrugged. "It's still him. Only dressed different." - ACOK - TYRION X
This catches Varys off guard, and any chance of seeing him being angry or looking threatened is waved away from the reader when Tyrion laughs it off and turns his attention again to his paramour Shae.
Wearing disguises is a very important part of Varys' many schemes, including visiting Ned Stark in the Black Cells as the gaoler Rugen;
"Wine," a voice answered. It was not the rat-faced man; this gaoler was stouter, shorter, though he wore the same leather half cape and spiked steel cap. "Drink, Lord Eddard." He thrust a wineskin into Ned's hands. The voice was strangely familiar, yet it took Ned Stark a moment to place it. "Varys?" he said groggily when it came. He touched the man's face. "I'm not … not dreaming this. You're here." The eunuch's plump cheeks were covered with a dark stubble of beard. Ned felt the coarse hair with his fingers. Varys had transformed himself into a grizzled turnkey, reeking of sweat and sour wine. "How did you … what sort of magician are you?" - AGOT - EDDARD XV
His disguise as Rugen is very important to Varys' plans after Tyrion's disappearance from King's Landing, as Varys seeks to frame Rugen as a Tyrell puppet who broke Tyrion from imprisonment on the Tyrells' behalf, to sow division and further paranoia between Cersei and the Tyrells;
Gold, yes, but the moment Cersei took it she could tell that it was wrong. Too small, she thought, too thin. The coin was old and worn. On one side was a king's face in profile, on the other side the imprint of a hand. "This is no dragon," she said. "No," Qyburn agreed. "It dates from before the Conquest, Your Grace. The king is Garth the Twelfth, and the hand is the sigil of House Gardener." Of Highgarden. Cersei closed her hand around the coin. What treachery is this? Mace Tyrell had been one of Tyrion's judges, and had called loudly for his death. Was that some ploy? Could he have been plotting with the Imp all the while, conspiring at Father's death? With Tywin Lannister in his grave, Lord Tyrell was an obvious choice to be King's Hand, but even so . . . "You will not speak of this with anyone," she commanded. - AFFC - CERSEI II
But this ploy to incite conflict between the Lannisters and Tyrells would have failed if Shae had lived, as she had seen through Varys' disguises and could've warned Cersei of it, something which Varys could not allow, especially given that he considered her one of Cersei's pawns after Tyrion's trial.
It is also fundamentally not in Varys' interest for Tyrion to kill Tywin, as keeping Tywin alive for now would ensure the Dornish would have someone to rise up and seek vengeance against for Elia's murder. As readers are shown in AFFC and ADWD Dornish chapters, the Martells are divided and frankly confused about how to seek vengeance for Elia's murder now that Tywin, Gregor and Armory Lorch - the three men involved in her murder - are now dead. **If Tywin had lived, Varys could've played on the Dornish thirst for vengeance against him and had fAegon promise them it in exchange for their support, something which they likely would've agreed to.
So by this point in the post, we've explored some of the key lies of Varys' character to know for sure what he is not;
So who is the real Varys? Behind all of these lies and deceptions, who is he really deep down?
Well, Varys is not a eunuch, and in fact fAegon's true father by blood. Varys has deliberately spent his life lying about being a eunuch in order to discourage people from the truth that he is the father of fAegon by Illyrio’s sister, and wants to control the Iron Throne through fAegon.
Recall Varys' conversation with Tyrion in ACOK that I previously cited earlier;
"He accuses my brother and sister of incest. I wonder how he came by that suspicion." "Perhaps he read a book and looked at the color of a bastard's hair, as Ned Stark did, and Jon Arryn before him. Or perhaps someone whispered it in his ear." The eunuch's laugh was not his usual giggle, but deeper and more throaty. "Someone like you, perchance?" "Am I suspected? It was not me." "If it had been, would you admit it?" "No. But why should I betray a secret I have kept so long? It is one thing to deceive a king, and quite another to hide from the cricket in the rushes and the little bird in the chimney. Besides, the bastards were there for all to see." - ACOK - TYRION III
"Why should I betray a secret I have kept so long?" is the biggest hint towards fAegon's existence and Varys' own true motivations in the entire series. Varys makes this spur of the moment claim after being caught off guard by Tyrion and doesn't think it through before saying it and letting Tyrion realise there is more to him.
Varys was never castrated and he is not bald. He deliberately shaves his head to hide his true parentage and lies about being a eunuch to discourage people from believing that he is capable of fathering a child, a child with Blackfyre blood that he wishes to sit on the Iron Throne, a secret that Varys has cared for and kept so long.
The last time we see Varys in ADWD, he finally begins to tell the truth about fAegon's existence, and when he does, and speaks about the son he loves, he begins to speak in his real, deeper and non-emasculated voice;**
"Aegon?" For a moment he did not understand. Then he remembered. A babe swaddled in a crimson cloak, the cloth stained with his blood and brains. "Dead. He's dead." "No." The eunuch's voice seemed deeper. "He is here. Aegon has been shaped for rule since before he could walk. He has been trained in arms, as befits a knight to be, but that was not the end of his education. He reads and writes, he speaks several tongues, he has studied history and law and poetry. A septa has instructed him in the mysteries of the Faith since he was old enough to understand them. He has lived with fisherfolk, worked with his hands, swum in rivers and mended nets and learned to wash his own clothes at need. He can fish and cook and bind up a wound, he knows what it is like to be hungry, to be hunted, to be afraid. Tommen has been taught that kingship is his right. Aegon knows that kingship is his duty, that a king must put his people first, and live and rule for them." - ADWD - EPILOGUE
This is who Varys truly is - not a eunuch, not a victim of slavery or castration, not a man who weeps for the suffering of children, not a friend of Tyrion Lannister, but a loving father who wishes to cast a very large shadow over the greatest empire the world of ASOIAF has ever known.
Varys is not a eunuch but instead the father of fAegon, a secret he has spent his life protecting, and a lie he has spent his life telling to better protect his son.
Varys does not hate R'hllor or those who worship magical flames, his entire story about his manhood being sacrificed to flames is a lie he tells to gain Tyrion's trust in their efforts to defeat Stannis in ACOK. Varys is close friends with Illyrio, a man who praises R'hllor, and spent the early parts of his life encouraging Aerys to feed innocent people to the flames of wildfire.
Varys does not hate the suffering of innocent children, he was prepared to buy an innocent child from a man and sacrifice him in order to protect the "real" Aegon, he was prepared to abandon Rhaenys to her brutal death even if he could have saved her too and prepared to send Viserys and Daenerys into a doomed invasion of Westeros that would've led to their deaths just to make fAegon appear a more heroic saviour compared to them.
Varys was never a friend or ally to Tyrion but instead was using him ever since they first met. He has repeatedly withheld important information from him such as who hired Mandon Moore to kill Tyrion and how Stannis figured out the truth about Cersei's children, and on frequent occasions has nearly openly laughed in Tyrion's face at both his misfortune and the information Varys withheld from him. Varys also manipulated Tyrion into killing Shae so that she would not expose Varys' identity as Rugen and didn't trust Tyrion with the information about fAegon's existence, something that Tyrion had to figure out himself. Varys also talks lowly of Tyrion at the end of ADWD as a "conniving Imp" which reflects Varys' true feelings about Tyrion.
Varys has spent his life shaving his hair and lying about being a eunuch to discourage anyone from believing he could father fAegon and better protect him, so that fAegon could one day take the Iron Throne, and cast a very large shadow over the Targaryen Empire forever.
Thanks for reading, if you enjoyed this theory be sure to read some of my other theories below;
All the signs that Tywin directly gave the Mountain the order to badly mistreat Elia Martell
The Father Rhaegaer, the Son Jon and the Holy Ghost Ghost, religious symbolism
Mance Rayder is a servant of the Others
Leyton Hightower is the Lord of Light and Malora the Mad Maid is Quaithe
2022 archive of ASOIAF theories available at the bottom of this post
submitted by I-am-the-Peel to asoiaf [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 16:39 deathpr00fm1ke 1 year today

Today marks the one year anniversary of me having my last drink. I had stopped getting sloppy drunk about 3 years prior, and I had cut waaaaay back, but there were still a couple times I got a little too loose. This day, in particular, wasn't a good one. My wife was already in a mood and going through some things, I was in a good mood and had a couple drinks. Recipe for disaster. We got into a huge fight, and I couldn't help but think it wouldn't have been that bad if I was sober. I took the remainder of the bottle I had and dumped it. I told myself that it was time to finally give it up 100%. Not so much as a taste in a whole year. It's been weird. Social anxiety has been the worst part. Second, I would have to say is guilt. I know I said and did a lot of shitty things in my 20+ year career of drinking heavy. I missed out on things I wish I hadn't, put things on the back burner that should've been priority, and pissed away a ton of money on being drunk, and stupid drunken spending. Here we are though. 44 years old, and feeling pretty good. I started riding my BMX bike again(I suck. Lol.), picked up my guitar again, and have slowly started rebuilding my Jeep finally. I get out in the woods for hikes again, I started working out 5 days a week, and I've been slowly getting together with friends again now that I'm getting over the social anxiety. Overall, I'm pretty happy. Just trying to piece things together and remember who I am. Being a loud obnoxious drunk for 2 decades burns bridges between you and a lot of people close to you, and builds bridges between you, and other obnoxious drunks like you, that you'd never hang out with otherwise. When you quit and attempt to reverse that, it's not easy. Those bridges aren't easily rebuilt, and the drunks you're now friends with, only want you to be that party animal. I just keep thinking, what a strange life I have lived.
Apologies for the excessively long story. A little bit of a release of thoughts, fueled by my morning coffee.
submitted by deathpr00fm1ke to Sober [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 16:32 Odd-Ad-8635 Oil and alcohol free sunscreen?

Looking for a sunscreen for the body that is both oil and alcohol free. I’m going on vacation and have Fitzpatrick Type 1 skin (never tan, always burn - I have Celtic heritage with red hair gene!) so I need a really good body SPF (50+ ideally) which is both alcohol and oil free. I wear St Tropez fake tanner to compensate for my overall ghostliness when abroad 😂 so looking to avoid alcohol/oil to avoid my tanner breaking down unevenly. Looking online and it’s proving to be very difficult to find a sunscreen both alcohol and oil free — finding they tend to be one or the other, but never both! Super frustrating. Any recommendations really appreciated 🩷🩷
submitted by Odd-Ad-8635 to beauty [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 15:53 Dazzling_Corgi_3190 Purifying Amphetamine - Complete Guide - Part 2: The practical part

Hey guys, it is coming with a lot of delay, but here it is – the practical part of the complete amphetamine purification guide that I announced ages ago.
First, a few things upfront.
Due to time and space constraints, it is not possible for me to cover and list all potentially possible purification methods that exist.
Therefore, I have focused on the ones that, in my experience, make some sense. So, things like recrystallization from an alcoholic solvent are not included because, in my opinion, it is a complete waste of time when it comes to amphetamine.
Furthermore, when it comes to purifying an unknown mixture, the problem is that it is not possible to choose the simplest possible method, as it strongly depends on which impurities need to be separated.
Therefore, I can only advise everyone who consumes regularly/daily to spend some money and invest in the necessary equipment for liquid-liquid extraction/acid-base extraction, as it is the most effective method apart from distillation when you don't know which substances you want to separate.
Lastly, a note:
All the procedures mentioned here are based on the assumption that the amphetamine is in the form of sulfate, as it is the case in 99.99% of all instances.
Most of the procedures should also work with other salts, but that strongly depends on the specific salt.
If you are unsure, start with a small amount to test it. I hope I don't have to mention that I assume all the chemicals involved are acquired in the highest possible purity and should preferably be anhydrous to avoid losses.

"Washing" speed or purifying it through filtration.

I consider washing your speed to be the minimum you should always do for your own sake because, honestly, it requires almost no effort, and the costs for everything you need are minimal, so there's practically no reason not to do it.
The procedure itself theoretically works with a wide range of solvents, but in practice, 2.5 solvents have proven to be effective: acetone, dichloromethane/chloroform, and in some cases, isopropyl alcohol.
Washing primarily helps to remove synthesis residues, solvent residues, caffeine, and in the case of isopropyl alcohol, lactose. The principle is the same in any case: The solvent dissolves the corresponding impurities but not the amphetamine sulfate, and after mixing the speed with the solvent, the sulfate is separated from the solvent through filtration.
I would advise everyone to determine the amount of solvent based on the assumption that 100% of your speed consists of caffeine, that is, based on the solubility of caffeine in the respective solvent. Isopropyl alcohol is the least preferable option because it only dissolves 1g of caffeine per 100ml, so I would recommend using it only if lactose is also present.
Acetone is the best choice for small amounts because it is relatively safe to handle. Acetone dissolves 1g of caffeine per 50ml, so I would use 50ml of acetone per gram of speed.
Dichloromethane and chloroform are the best options, but since both substances have a certain level of toxicity, caution should be exercised when working with them. They dissolve 1 gram of caffeine with just 7ml. For washing purposes, I would simply use 10ml per gram of speed for simplicity. In general, it is also recommended to perform two or more washing cycles because a single cycle will never achieve the same efficiency.
The concept and execution are the same for all:

Required equipment:

Allow the speed to dry and then finely chop it. This will provide a more optimal surface area, making it easier to remove impurities.
Once that's done, take the speed and put it in one of the glasses.
Then pour the solvent into the glass and stir it with the spoon for a bit. Stir a bit longer, around 1-2 minutes.
Wait for another 5 minutes, then take the coffee filter and place it over the second glass like a funnel.
Once that's done, simply pour the contents of the first glass through the coffee filter into the second glass and wait for all the solvent to drain through the filter.
The amphetamine sulfate will still be in the coffee filter since it doesn't dissolve and can be scraped together after tearing or cutting open the filter.
Once the powder no longer has any odor, it can be consumed.

Purification through fractional recrystallization:

This method is based on the principle that when a mixture of substances dissolved in hot water is cooled, the substances that are less soluble in water compared to the other substances precipitate first. This is particularly true for caffeine, which is almost always present in speed, but certain sugar alcohols and substances like creatine can also be effectively separated using this method, which cannot be achieved through, for example, an acetone wash.
For example, caffeine is 33 times more soluble in boiling water compared to its solubility in water at room temperature, while the solubility of amphetamine sulfate only changes by a factor of 7.
To remove synthesis byproducts, it is still advisable to wash your speed first. However, this is not a prerequisite.

Required equipment:

Required chemicals:

First, the distilled water needs to be heated to boiling. The easiest way to do this is with a kettle, but a stovetop and pot will also work if necessary.
While the water is slowly coming to a boil, fill a beake glass with the (previously dried and finely chopped) speed. Then, drop by drop and while stirring, add hot water until everything is dissolved.
As a rough guideline, you can estimate that approximately 4ml of water will be required, but this may vary slightly.
Next, let it cool to room temperature and then place it in the refrigerator for about 2 hours.
Meanwhile, place the coffee filter over the second glass. After the 2-hour period, the caffeine should be clearly visible as cotton-like needles in the beaker glass from the refrigerator.
Pour the contents troughthe coffee filter, collecting the filtrate in the second beaker glass.
What remains in the filter is the caffeine, while the amphetamine salt is now in the second beaker / glass. Transfer its contents onto the plate and allow the water to evaporate.
Once the water has evaporated, the residue only needs to be scraped together and is ready for consumption. Alternatively, it can be directly filled into a nasal spray.

Liquid-Liquid Extraction/Acid-Base Extraction

This method is not suitable for casual consumers as it involves a more complex procedure and requires some equipment and chemicals investment. However, most of the costs are one-time purchases, so they won't be incurred in subsequent runs.
This is the method I would personally recommend to regular consumers as it is significantly more effective than others, second only to distillation. However, this method involves working with potentially hazardous substances such as concentrated sulfuric acid, concentrated sodium hydroxide, and others. While handling them safely is possible, there is a potential risk involved.
The method combines the concept of liquid-liquid extraction with the acid-base salt concept, which ultimately achieves significant effectiveness.
Liquid-liquid extraction is a classic separation method in organic chemistry commonly used for processing reaction mixtures. It utilizes the differential solubility of substances in two immiscible solvents (e.g., watedichloromethane). According to the Nernst distribution law, different substances will ultimately accumulate in the solvent in which they are more soluble.
Subsequently, the amphetamine base is released from the amphetamine salt, causing a drastic change in solubility. This allows for the extraction of the amphetamine base and separation of all substances that do not undergo this salt/base transition, including water-soluble and less water-soluble compounds.
During the practical implementation, there are a few aspects that may vary depending on the choice of solvent, among other factors. Therefore, it is advisable for everyone to understand and internalize the information provided before carrying out the practical procedure. Link to reference/04%3A_Extraction/4.06%3A_Step-by-Step_Procedures_For_Extractions)
Required Equipment:
I will explain the practical procedure using dichloromethane (DCM) as it has a convenient density for the process, is highly effective for caffeine, and evaporates rapidly.
Practical Procedure:
Personal protective equipment (goggles, lab coat or apron) should be worn at all times. It is recommended to wear a pair of nitrile disposable gloves with a pair of latex disposable gloves over them. If any chemical contacts the gloves, immediately remove them, wash your hands, and put on a fresh pair. This precaution will help prevent any chemical burns. Always wear protective goggles to safeguard your eyesight when working with any chemicals.

  1. Wash the speed with acetone.

  1. Purity the amphetamine sulfate by "shaking it out".
First, the amphetamine is naturally purified as a salt. Dissolve the speed in sufficient water and add the corresponding nonpolar solvent to the separatory funnel.
The ratio of water to organic solvent should be roughly 2:1 in terms of volume. Each phase separation should be given approximately 30 minutes. The amphetamine salt will be present in the aqueous phase, which, in the case of DCM/water, would be the upper phase, while the nonpolar impurities would be in the organic phase at the bottom of the separatory funnel. The extraction should be performed three times, meaning that after each phase separation, the organic solvent is drained into a separate beaker, and fresh organic solvent is added. Once that is done, drain the water+speed solution into another beaker and clean the separatory funnel.

  1. Preparation of sodium hydroxide solution.
To release the base, sodium hydroxide solution is required. Start by adding 10ml of distilled water to a 100ml beaker. Weigh out 7g of sodium hydroxide and add it slowly (with pauses) to the beaker containing the distilled water in small portions, stirring with a glass rod (Caution! The solution reacts exothermically, meaning it becomes hot!). Once all the sodium hydroxide has been added, set it aside and let it cool.

  1. Releasing the amphetamine base.
Clean the separatory funnel with distilled water and acetone, then refill it with the amphetamine sulfate/water solution.
Slowly add the sodium hydroxide solution in small portions, following the instructions provided in the link. Shake while venting the funnel and repeat this process until small oily droplets form on the surface.
Caution! This process is also exothermic!
Then, using a pipette, take a sample from the lower aqueous phase and test if the pH value is strongly alkaline (pH >= 13).
If that's the case, close the separatory funnel with the stopper and wait for the solution to cool.

  1. Extracting the amphetamine base.
After a short waiting period, add the organic solvent in an initial ratio of 1:2 (organic solvent) to (water). Shake vigorously, let it settle, and then drain the organic solvent+base mixture into a beaker.
Note that in the case of DCM, the base will be in the lower phase since DCM has a lower density than water. In other solvents, it may be different.
Then add the same amount of organic solvent again. Shake, let it settle, etc., and drain the organic solvent into the same beaker again.
Repeat this process for three extractions without adding new water. Once that is done, drain the water into a separate beaker as well.

  1. Drying the amphetamine base.
First, dry the solvent+base mixture by using anhydrous potassium carbonate or molecular sieve A3, and separate the drying agent as in the washing step trough filtration.
Allow the organic solvent to evaporate.
The base is not as volatile as one might think, so depending on the solvent, you can apply some heat if necessary.

  1. Formation of amphetamine sulfate.
Once the base is dried and the solvent is evaporated, the salt is formed.
Dissolve the amphetamine base in the alcoholic solvent in a beaker.
The base-to-solvent ratio can be about 1:10. Stir the mixture with the glass rod and then prepare the sulfuric acid. It is recommended to dilute the sulfuric acid for this step, possibly to 20% or lower.
Dilute it in the alcoholic solvent and not in water because water could dissolve the salt, resulting in lower yields compared to diluting sulfuric acid in an alcoholic solvent.
Pour the diluted sulfuric acid into a pipette and slowly add it drop by drop to the base-alcohol mixture while stirring.
Take your time and don't rush. Regularly and frequently monitor the pH during the addition, ideally after every few drops.
Once the pH reaches around 8-7, stop adding acid.

  1. Washing the formed sulfate.
Afterward, filter the mixture and rinse the sulfate in the filter cake with acetone.

That's it! You have completed the process.
General notes:
Please note that without knowing the exact purities, we cannot work with stoichiometry. Therefore, we will rely on the pH value for approximate measurements. However, there are rough estimates for the amounts needed per gram of speed.
For every mole of amphetamine sulfate, you would need approximately 2 moles of sodium hydroxide. This translates to around 3.09 ml of a 1.75 molar sodium hydroxide solution per 10 grams of amphetamine sulfate.
During neutralization, we would require approximately 1 mole of sulfuric acid for 2 moles of amphetamine base. This amounts to about 2.8 grams of sulfuric acid per 10 grams of amphetamine. It is advisable to dilute the sulfuric acid to around 20/25%. This makes it more manageable, but you will need to dilute it yourself.
Commercially available sulfuric acid is sold as a solution in water, and the higher the water content, the lower the yield you will obtain. Therefore, it is recommended to purchase sulfuric acid with a relatively low percentage, concentrate it, dissolve it in isopropanol, and then use it.
Additionally, familiarize yourself with the entire process, including practical execution, by referring to internship papers from universities, which are intended for their students, for example.
Pay attention to details such as regular pressure release, as they are crucial.
Theoretically, you can also carry out the neutralization directly in acetone.
This would eliminate the need for an additional alcoholic solvent. I had this in mind because 1L of 99.5% isopropanol costs me less than two euros, while acetone costs about six times as much.
Regarding the polarity of the alcoholic solvent, I would not recommend going higher than methanol. In methanol, the sulfate would be soluble, even if only to a minimal extent.
Do not worry about exposing the base to certain temperatures or leaving it exposed to air for a while. Significant evaporation should not be a concern unless the temperature exceeds 60-80 degrees Celsius.
It is possible to use other acids instead of sulfuric acid if, for example, phosphoric acid is more affordable. Phosphoric acid is also easier to handle. The pH of the solution would be only slightly different in the end. Please conduct further research on this topic.
Please ensure that you are mentally coherent during the process. Avoid attempting the procedure after several sleepless nights, for example. While the overall procedure is not difficult to complete without incidents, if you forget to release the pressure from the separation funnel due to lack of sleep and it explodes in your hand or you get splashed with highly concentrated sulfuric acid, you will encounter significant problems.
Finally, consider how to handle the waste products. Most of them can either be evaporated or disposed down the drain, such as sodium hydroxide. However, do not attempt to dispose of sulfuric acid in this manner.

Steam Distillation:

This method is only suitable for people who really want to achieve maximum purity and are willing to invest a significant amount of money and engage in safe practices in organic chemistry.
Steam distillation is a special form of azeotropic distillation.
Simply put, volatile compounds that are steam-volatile add their own vapor pressure to the vapor pressure of water. These compounds distill along with water when the sum of their vapor pressures reaches atmospheric pressure.
In other words, the distilling water "carries" certain substances with it, allowing them to distill below their actual boiling point and separate them from a mixture. The method is very gentle on the substances and highly selective, as only a few substances are steam-volatile. Amphetamine is one of these substances.
To perform this method, you will need specific equipment and ideally have experience with laboratory work. It's important to know what you are doing to avoid compromising your yield or, worse, encountering significant problems.
Assuming you have already liberated the amphetamine base and have it solvent-free, either through the method mentioned above or by some other means, it is essential to familiarize yourself with safe distillation practices beforehand. You can refer to resources like Chapter 19 here.
Required Equipment:

Assembly of the distillation apparatus:
First, place the stand on a stable surface and secure it with clamps.
Next, securely attach the three-necked distillation flask to the stand and place it on the magnetic stirrer with heating plate.
Make sure the flask is stable and upright, without wobbling.
Initially, attach the ground glass caps (NS 24/29) and stoppers (NS 24/29) to the necks of the distillation flask.
For the "steam kettle," use a second three-necked flask with ground glass joints (NS 24/29).
Seal the middle, long neck with a stopper and place a riser tube on the inlet neck of the flask for added safety.
Secure the "steam kettle" with a stand to ensure its stability.
Connect the outlet of the steam kettle to the inlet neck of the three-necked distillation flask (NS 24/29) using a hose and a suitable ground glass connector (NS 24/29).
Next, connect the ground glass outlet (NS 24/29) of the distillation flask to the ground glass inlet (NS 24/29) of the Liebig condenser using a distillation head with vertical side arm, 2 NS 29/32 cores, 1 NS 14/23 socket.
Align the condenser so that the upper part (inlet) of the condenser is positioned above the distillation flask, and the lower part points towards the collection vessel.
Attach a distillation thermometer with NS 14/23 joint to the socket of the distillation head. The length of this thermometer should correspond to your specific requirements, meaning it should only measure the temperature of the gas phase and not dip into the liquid.
Check that all connections are tight and stable. Finally, connect the lower end of the Liebig condenser to another two-necked flask with a ground glass joint (NS 24/29) using an appropriate connector.
Insert the connector into the inlet neck of the two-necked flask.
This two-necked flask serves as a collection container for the distillate and should also be secured by a stand.
It should have two necks because a screw valve with ground glass joint 24/29 is screwed into the remaining free neck.
This valve allows the release of any pressure if necessary.
Once everything is set up, perform a test run and distill a certain amount of water as a trial. If everything is sealed, stable, and without any issues, you can proceed. Otherwise, disassemble everything and reassemble it carefully.

Practical procedure:
First, add approximately five to ten times the volume of water compared to the corresponding amount of amphetamine, along with boiling stones, into the steam kettle and seal it tightly with a stopper.
Then, add the amphetamine base into the distillation flask and seal it tightly with a stopper as well.
Now, heat both the steam kettle and the distillation flask to 100 degrees Celsius, but stir the contents of the distillation flask gently.
Carefully monitor the distillation process.
The hot water in the steam kettle will act as carrier steam, vaporizing the amphetamine. The distilled amphetamine condenses in the Liebig condenser together with the water vapor and flows into the collection vessel.
Pay close attention to the temperature of the water vapor during the process. While the distillation process is in progress, the temperature will fluctuate and may not stabilize at a constant 100 degrees Celsius. Once the distillation process is complete, the temperature of the water vapor will stabilize and settle at 100 degrees Celsius.
At this point, you can stop the distillation process and separate the distilled amphetamine base from the water using liquid-liquid extraction.
Important: First, remove the steam inlet connection from the distillation flask! If you don't do this first and instead turn off the heat sources, a vacuum will be created in the steam kettle as the cooling water vapor condenses. If the inlet connection dips into the solution, the entire contents of the distillation flask will be sucked into the kettle.
Additional Notes:
The distillation flask should be filled to a maximum of two-thirds of its capacity at the beginning of distillation, which should be considered when purchasing the flask.
The steam kettle should have a volume several times greater than the volume of amphetamine because, in case of any unforeseen circumstances, you may need significantly more water than amphetamine.
The uniform heating of the steam kettle is not critical, but remember to include boiling stones. However, it is crucial to ensure even heating of the amphetamine.
An oil bath would be ideal as a heat source, but a magnetic stirrer with a heating plate will also suffice.
submitted by Dazzling_Corgi_3190 to speed [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 15:12 Chieve Bulking while on a vegan keto diet?

Hey guys, so ive been doing vegan keto for a few weeks now but I have a few fears...
1) I am trying to lose weight, should I worry about losing muscle mass on a calorie deficit or am i fine since im in ketosis, so my body is just burning fat?
2) I am trying to bulk at the gym, and one of the issues I have, and that I cant find a clear answer online, is how much protein i should have? I know if i have too much, it will break my ketosis, but if I dont have enough i wont be bulking.
Its also way easier for me to find foods high in protein vs fat, and doesnt have too much carbs. Lately ive just been using mct 8 and 10 oil just to make suee i can make things high in fat. But i also end up eating less or eating weird things because its 130 calories and calories add up quick 😓
submitted by Chieve to veganketo [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 15:00 charmilllla Sun Protection Cream recommendations?

So I saw a tik tok where a couple were applying sun protection cream which looks like you just put it on your face like you put chapstick on your lips. Do you perhaps know where to find it or know what it is? As a tanned asian I‘m struggling to apply it (getting used to it) i already tried sun oil which burned my skin a bit, sun cream has been okayish but I just cant get used to it. Since Summer is there now and I‘m a lot outside now, my vitiligo spots have been red a lot and my skin got more flaky now, now I wanna try it out with this chapstick like Sun Cream appliance.
submitted by charmilllla to Vitiligo [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 14:59 Excellent-War-8136 2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee AC issues

Last summer I got my AC recharged and blend actuator replaced. Which worked great for a short period of time. Now it only blows hot air same temp if set on heat as when set on ac. Any reason this may be?
submitted by Excellent-War-8136 to AskMechanics [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 14:46 Master_Ad_4727 I don't know what just happened..

I have a convection microwave oven, guessing we've owned it for 7 years. I put a pie in the microwave and heated it for 10 minutes. Here's my first mistake. The pie was de-thawed, so I didn't need to microwave it for that long, (I'm so use to getting them straight out of the freezer.) Anyway I put it on the flat plate and after a while I could hear cooking sounds and then an awful seeping of a burn smell. I switched off the microwave, pulled out the plug, and I noticed the vents in the rear billowing with smoke. I took the microwave outside and placed it on a table in the middle of no-where. Here's the thing, the pie sitting on the flat plate, was black on the bottom of it, and the top of the pie was also black. I would have thought if I overheated the pie on microwave setting, the most it would have done, was made the pie very soggy? I think I somehow had a very near-miss, it could have been far worse! I'm puzzled, having cooked roasts in it for many years, could I have clogged up the fan with any residual oil, or has my microwave convection oven just seen out its days. I never expected to see the bottom of the pie via a thick flat plate, burnt black. What has your experiences being with microwave convection ovens? Looking at getting a new one, and I noticed they put the fan on the roof now, not at the rear, for saving space purposes. Any help, advice, would be much appreciated. I don't want to be at fault with my next purchase!
submitted by Master_Ad_4727 to Appliances [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 14:43 Master_Ad_4727 I don't know what just happened..

have a convection microwave oven, guessing we've owned it for 7 years. I put a pie in the microwave and heated it for 10 minutes. Here's my first mistake. The pie was de-thawed, so I didn't need to microwave it for that long, (I'm so use to getting them straight out of the freezer.) Anyway I put it on the flat plate and after a while I could hear cooking sounds and then an awful seeping of a burn smell. I switched off the microwave, pulled out the plug, and I noticed the vents in the rear billowing with smoke. I took the microwave outside and placed it on a table in the middle of no-where. Here's the thing, the pie sitting on the flat plate, was black on the bottom of it, and the top of the pie was also black. I would have thought if I overheated the pie on microwave setting, the most it would have done, was made the pie very soggy? I think I somehow had a very near-miss, it could have been far worse! I'm puzzled, having cooked roasts in it for many years, could I have clogged up the fan with any residual oil, or has my microwave convection oven just seen out its days. I never expected to see the bottom of the pie via a thick flat plate, burnt black. What has your experiences being with microwave convection ovens? Looking at getting a new one, and I noticed they put the fan on the roof now, not at the rear, for saving space purposes. Any help, advice, would be much appreciated. I don't want to be at fault with my next purchase!
submitted by Master_Ad_4727 to u/Master_Ad_4727 [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 14:27 RobertThePersian JK 3.6 Pentastar with persistent oil filter housing leak.

Long story short: about to be installing my fifth oil filter housing assembly in eight months.
The Jeep: 2016 RHD JK with 100k+ miles, used for mail delivery that I've owned for four years. Using Mobil 1 5W-20 High Mileage Synthetic before the new engine which has had whatever Mopar oil the dealership put in. Also, I do use a torque wrench to tighten the filter to 18 ft. lbs. at every oil change, which I've been doing around every 3,000 miles because of the intense use.
I came home one day in October 2022 and noticed something that caught my eye on the garage floor underneath my Jeep. I looked and there was oil running underneath my Jeep on the backside of the oil pan and along where the inspection plugs are at on the bell housing, and had the transmission pan covered. I looked in the engine bay and I could tell the valve cover gaskets were wet (this will become somewhat relevant later). I checked the dipstick and noticed I was down a half-quart of oil. I got in touch with a local shop that has a good rep within my small community and the mechanic said it wasn't my valve covers, that I had an oil filter housing leak that was just running along the valve cover. I wanted him to do the work because I wasn't super-eager about reassembling the intake and I needed new spark plugs anyways (this will also come back later), so that overlaps well enough. It took him a month to get around to it, I drove my backup a lot in the meantime, and the bill for spark plugs and the oil filter ended up being $660. That's how I got Oil Filter Housing #2.
But the Jeep kept leaking oil.
I took it back to the local mechanic the next chance I got, a couple of weeks later. He said he'd look at it that day, I guess he did, and assured me it was probably old oil that was still stuck along the way. I was skeptical; after probably fifty hours of use, any old oil should have run off or burned off a bit ago. The Jeep keeps on leaking oil, even after I do an oil change. I take it back and the local mechanic pours some dye in and tells me to come back in a day and he will look and see if it's still leaking fresh oil. Local mechanic finds that it is and he reinstalls the oil filter housing, free of charge to me.
We had a wet and icy winter in the central US that kept the garage floor and the bell housing and the transmission pan cleaned off so I didn't notice a lot of oil getting on the floor but I did have to keep the Jeep topped off, losing a quart about every 1500 miles. I'm figuring that's not super unusual for a Pentastar with 100k+ on the clock and I'm busy and don't have time to have the Jeep laid up in the weather that I bought it for. When spring comes around I start to notice the leak again. At this point I'm starting to suspect a rear main seal more than oil filter housing but the inspection holes are still dry.
One weekend in March, I did an oil change on a Sunday afternoon. The next day (Monday, the perfect day of the week for this to happen), I'm heading out to load my Jeep and I notice a gigantic puddle of something underneath my Jeep. It looks to me like the front crankshaft seal just pissed itself. I feel the puddle and the liquid is slick, like oil. It's also barely above 32F outside, and all the liquid I can see is running underneath the crankshaft pulley. Oil stick still looks OK though. I panic drive the Jeep back home and get it in the garage, put a mat under it, get my backup and do my route. I try to get a local shop (the one I went to before or any others within ten miles, which is about as far as I estimate it can go) to see if they can get my Jeep in but they refuse to take it because they are too busy. I call a Jeep dealership a couple of towns over that has a good reputation (as opposed to the one a town over, but owned by the same company, that doesn't) and have it towed there. I tell them about the immediate problem and the oil leak I've been having. The service advisor, who I have to say is one of the better ones I've ever worked with on anything, calls me back and tell me that it wasn't the crank seal, it was the water pump. They also noticed I had some rocker arms going bad. I tell them that I had noticed that too (I had always heard that Jeep dealerships wouldn't look at rockers until a check engine light came on otherwise I'd have taken care of this a year or two ago) and that they would replace those. The oil leak looked to be coming out of the oil filter housing and the valve covers (the same thing I thought six months ago). To skip ahead through a couple of phone calls, the rockers on the left bank of the Pentastar were also bad and a cam over there was damaged. I could have all of that repaired for $5300 or just install a reman engine + the oil filter housing for around $8k, which would include a three year, 100k mile parts & labor warranty. After thinking about what else could continue going wrong, I ended up telling them to put a reman in. I get over to the dealership to pick up my Jeep after it's all said and done and the SA says "Oh, we had to put new spark plugs in, the old ones were junk and weren't really for that vehicle." My opinion of the trusted local mechanic really has gone downhill but I'm thrilled to have all of their bullshit behind me. That's the story of how I got Oil Filter Housing #3.
Things are going fine with the Jeep, not hearing any crazy noises, but it does occur to me to check the oil after about 1,000 miles. I check and it's about a half-quart low. My eyebrows are raised but I think, "well maybe the dealership only put 5.5 quarts in." I top it off with some Mobil 1 I had around, and continue on as normal. After about 2600 miles on the new motor, I decide to check it again and the oil level is barely registering on the dipstick. I look underneath the Jeep and the back of the pan and the bell housing are all covered with oil again (nothing's on the transmission pan, curiously enough). I look up top and I can see oil coming out below where the filter is (which I haven't even touched on this engine). I top off the Jeep (with Mobil 1 again, which I thought about but that didn't make the Jeep oil level low to start with), call the dealership, and they conclude that it is oil filter housing and they replace the oil filter housing and change the oil, all under warranty and it didn't cost me a dime. That's Oil Filter Housing #4.
I got my Jeep back Wednesday of last week. Besides driving it home, I drove my backup vehicle on Thursday and drove the Jeep on the route on Friday & Saturday (yesterday). There's an empty church parking lot I usually stop at and re-sort and reorganize my parcels in. I decided to have a peek underneath just to check things out and sure enough, right on the bottom side of the bell housing once again. I'm going to be calling the dealership back first chance I get this week, so I guess this will be Oil Filter Housing #5.
So that's the full background.
My question is, are there any other causes for this besides just coincidentally bad workmanship spread across multiple mechanics and companies, or have Mopar parts quality just gotten this bad? Is there anything I can bring up to the Jeep SA that might be making these oil filter housing assemblies fail? I'm completely out of ideas here.
submitted by RobertThePersian to Wrangler [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 14:20 Disastrous-Truck1577 Flashing CEL is the P1326 code.

2017 Santa Fe sport 2.0 So just looking for other people’s adventure with the p1326 code for the knock sensor going off.
Background: I’m second owner have maintained this car to the T since purchase at 33k. At 86k mi the car lost power on the highway I was able to just coast off and exit had it towed to my mechanic who said take it to Hyundai. This car did burn oil a little under 1 quart every 1k which from what I’ve read and heard isn’t enough to get them to do anything. Hyundai said it was an injector it was not. There was no compression in cyl 3. Eventually they discovered a burnt valve which requires replacing the engine. Which was done under my extended warranty. I did some other stuff while they were in there like spark plugs the other injectors just to be safe and know my car will get me where I need to go.
It’s been 1800 miles since, then I went through a car wash, less than a mile later the check engine light is blinking. Luckily I was on my street, I put it in my driveway and read the code p1326. Note: new engine hasn’t burned any/minimal oil, still full on dipstick. Called the warranty people, they paid for my tow back to Hyundai who said they will get to it ASAP. They have been fairly good as a dealership so not trash talking them. Service advisor (same as last time) said they think the sensor is just faulty as it has a new engine already.
So has anyone dealt with anything similar?
submitted by Disastrous-Truck1577 to HyundaiSantaFe [link] [comments]

2023.06.04 13:12 KingofSpain0 Deuteronomy 32

Deuteronomy 32:1-52
1 Listen, you heavens, and I will speak; hear, you earth, the words of my mouth. 2 Let my teaching fall like rain and my words descend like dew, like showers on new grass, like abundant rain on tender plants.
3 I will proclaim the name of the Lord. Oh, praise the greatness of our God! 4 He is the Rock, his works are perfect, and all his ways are just. A faithful God who does no wrong, upright and just is he.
5 They are corrupt and not his children; to their shame they are a warped and crooked generation. 6 Is this the way you repay the Lord, you foolish and unwise people? Is he not your Father, your Creator, who made you and formed you?
7 Remember the days of old; consider the generations long past. Ask your father and he will tell you, your elders, and they will explain to you. 8 When the Most High gave the nations their inheritance, when he divided all mankind, he set up boundaries for the peoples according to the number of the sons of Israel. 9 For the Lord’s portion is his people, Jacob his allotted inheritance.
10 In a desert land he found him, in a barren and howling waste. He shielded him and cared for him; he guarded him as the apple of his eye, 11 like an eagle that stirs up its nest and hovers over its young, that spreads its wings to catch them and carries them aloft. 12 The Lord alone led him; no foreign god was with him.
13 He made him ride on the heights of the land and fed him with the fruit of the fields. He nourished him with honey from the rock, and with oil from the flinty crag, 14 with curds and milk from herd and flock and with fattened lambs and goats, with choice rams of Bashan and the finest kernels of wheat. You drank the foaming blood of the grape.
15 Jeshurun grew fat and kicked; filled with food, they became heavy and sleek. They abandoned the God who made them and rejected the Rock their Savior. 16 They made him jealous with their foreign gods and angered him with their detestable idols. 17 They sacrificed to false gods, which are not God— gods they had not known, gods that recently appeared, gods your ancestors did not fear. 18 You deserted the Rock, who fathered you; you forgot the God who gave you birth.
19 The Lord saw this and rejected them because he was angered by his sons and daughters. 20 “I will hide my face from them,” he said, “and see what their end will be; for they are a perverse generation, children who are unfaithful. 21 They made me jealous by what is no god and angered me with their worthless idols. I will make them envious by those who are not a people; I will make them angry by a nation that has no understanding. 22 For a fire will be kindled by my wrath, one that burns down to the realm of the dead below. It will devour the earth and its harvests and set afire the foundations of the mountains.
23 “I will heap calamities on them and spend my arrows against them. 24 I will send wasting famine against them, consuming pestilence and deadly plague; I will send against them the fangs of wild beasts, the venom of vipers that glide in the dust. 25 In the street the sword will make them childless; in their homes terror will reign. The young men and young women will perish, the infants and those with gray hair. 26 I said I would scatter them and erase their name from human memory, 27 but I dreaded the taunt of the enemy, lest the adversary misunderstand and say, ‘Our hand has triumphed; the Lord has not done all this.’”
28 They are a nation without sense, there is no discernment in them. 29 If only they were wise and would understand this and discern what their end will be! 30 How could one man chase a thousand, or two put ten thousand to flight, unless their Rock had sold them, unless the Lord had given them up? 31 For their rock is not like our Rock, as even our enemies concede. 32 Their vine comes from the vine of Sodom and from the fields of Gomorrah. Their grapes are filled with poison, and their clusters with bitterness. 33 Their wine is the venom of serpents, the deadly poison of cobras.
34 “Have I not kept this in reserve and sealed it in my vaults? 35 It is mine to avenge; I will repay. In due time their foot will slip; their day of disaster is near and their doom rushes upon them.”
36 The Lord will vindicate his people and relent concerning his servants when he sees their strength is gone and no one is left, slave or free. 37 He will say: “Now where are their gods, the rock they took refuge in, 38 the gods who ate the fat of their sacrifices and drank the wine of their drink offerings? Let them rise up to help you! Let them give you shelter!
39 “See now that I myself am he! There is no god besides me. I put to death and I bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my hand. 40 I lift my hand to heaven and solemnly swear: As surely as I live forever, 41 when I sharpen my flashing sword and my hand grasps it in judgment, I will take vengeance on my adversaries and repay those who hate me. 42 I will make my arrows drunk with blood, while my sword devours flesh: the blood of the slain and the captives, the heads of the enemy leaders.”
43 Rejoice, you nations, with his people, for he will avenge the blood of his servants; he will take vengeance on his enemies and make atonement for his land and people.
44 Moses came with Joshua son of Nun and spoke all the words of this song in the hearing of the people. 45 When Moses finished reciting all these words to all Israel, 46 he said to them, “Take to heart all the words I have solemnly declared to you this day, so that you may command your children to obey carefully all the words of this law. 47 They are not just idle words for you—they are your life. By them you will live long in the land you are crossing the Jordan to possess.”

48 On that same day the Lord told Moses, 49 “Go up into the Abarim Range to Mount Nebo in Moab, across from Jericho, and view Canaan, the land I am giving the Israelites as their own possession. 50 There on the mountain that you have climbed you will die and be gathered to your people, just as your brother Aaron died on Mount Hor and was gathered to his people. 51 This is because both of you broke faith with me in the presence of the Israelites at the waters of Meribah Kadesh in the Desert of Zin and because you did not uphold my holiness among the Israelites. 52 Therefore, you will see the land only from a distance; you will not enter the land I am giving to the people of Israel.”
submitted by KingofSpain0 to JesusChrist [link] [comments]